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German and NS Terminology

The use of quotation marks denotes nazified or nazi words.

A Nazi euphemism for deportation for so-called racial reasons. The term was used, without quotation marks, by the representatives of the Jewish community, on instructions from the "Aufsichtsbehörde"/ "supervisory authority", a euphemism for the Gestapo. This and other terminology was intentionally used to deceive the deportees.

Aktion "Arbeitsscheu Reich":
In June 1938 Jews with previous convictions, which included the most trifling offences, were transported to concentration camps. The total number of such individuals arrested in Hamburg is unknown. At least 41 of these were murdered in connection with the internment in concentration camps or with the later deportation and extermination measures. These 41 individuals are here named:
Heinz Abraham, Max Blumenthal, Albert Bohn, Leo Ehrlich, Siegfried Feldheim, Walter Freund, Berthold Freundlich, Walter Goldberg, Julius Goldschmidt, Alfons von Halle, Felix von Halle, Jacob Hecht, Martin Heynemann, Gustav Holstein, Hugo Horwitz, Max Karfunkel, Arthur Krebs, Leo Lazarus, Dr. Leonard Lazarus, David Levy, Alfons Liebenthal, Siegfried Liebreich, Sally Loeb, Joseph Ludwig, Fritz Mainzer, Max Mendel, Hugo Moses, Nathan Neumann, Siegfried Neumann, Alfred Oppenheim, Alfred Pein, Theodor Reiss, Bruno Rosenbaum, Siegfried Rosenblum, John Salomon, Isidor Selig, Leo Silberstein, Hermann Sonn, Lippmann Weinberg, Max Wolf, Adolf Wolff.

"Aktion Reinhard" (Operation Reinhard):
The "Final Solution to the Jewish Problem" ("Endlösung der Judenfrage") , i.e. the extermination of the indigenous Jewish population of the occupied eastern territories and of those Jews deported there from March 1942, began to be carried out in accordance with Göring's 31.07.1941 order to Heydrich, and based upon the experience of the Einsatzgruppen in the occupied areas of the Soviet Union, where the mass extermination of the Jews had begun immediately after the German occupation in the summer of 1941. These measures were carried out under the code name Operation Reinhard ("Aktion Reinhard"). SS Brigadeführer Odilo Globocnik, who was appointed to implement the operation, named the following tasks in his communication to Himmler on 5.01.1944:
"The entire "Aktion Reinhard" comprises four areas:
a) resettlement
b) exploitation of the workforce
c) utilization of property
d) collection of concealed valuables and property"

The mass extermination of the Jews was implemented in the extermination camps of Belzec, from March 1942, Chelmno (Kulmhof), from the end of 1941, Sobibor, from April 1942, Treblinka, from October 1941, in the concentration and extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, from October 1941, and in Majdanek, from the beginning of 1942, but also directly in the towns and villages in the occupied territory. Units of the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei comprising the Schutzpolizei = uniformed police and Gendarmerie = rural police) together with the SS, SD, and "Hilfswilligen" were involved in the transportation of Jews to the extermination camps. This action was known euphemistically as "resettlement" ("Aussiedlung"). The operation was supported by the local Polish police.

National Socialist term for the Germam Reich within its 1937 borders.

This term originated at the end of the 1870s. It was misleading in that hostility was solely directed at Jews and not against all semitic peoples.
Antisemitism i.e. emnity towards Jews, is not restricted to Christian cultures, however, it is within these cultures that it is most evident. Whereas in the West the spread of antisemitism remained relatively restricted, in Germany and in eastern Europe it was widely disseminated.
Following the 1st World War the Jews were made answerable for all social and political crises. The Nazis consciously built upon this conventional antisemitism and additionally used the modern form of antisemitism i.e. racial antisemitism. The attempt by the Nazis to systematically exterminate the "Jews", as defined by the Nuremberg decrees, as contained in their policy of the "Endlösung der Judenfrage"/"Final solution to the Jewish Problem", represented the most extreme form of antisemitism, which however had its origins in the antisemitism of the previous century.

This term was employed by the Nazis to denote the common racial component of the German peoples, free from other, alien, "Rassenerbgut"/"racial genetic blood". Apart from the Jews all native nom-European "races" e.g. the "negro" and the "gypsy", were seen as alien ("artfremd"/"foreign").
The term non-"Aryan" included those with non-"Aryan", in particular Jewish, parents or grandparents. It was sufficient when one parent or grandparent was non-"Aryan". This was especially so when a parent or grandparent had been of the Jewish faith.
The proof of "Aryan" descent ("Ariernachweis"/"proof of "Aryan" descent", or "Abstammungsnachweis"/"proof of descent" was to be furnished by the presentation of the documents of birth of preceeding generations.

The Nazi term for the expropriation of Jewish property and its transfer to non-Jewish ("Aryan") ownership. "Aryanization" was enforced by a series of laws and regulations, and the use of naked violence. "Aryanization" was also used to exert pressure on the "Jews" as an inducement for them to forcibly emigrate. Many of those "Aryanized" no longer possessed the necessary finances to emigrate.

"Aufsichtsbehörde"/"Supervisory Authority" i.e. Gestapo:
The "Aufsichtsbehörde" was a Nazi euphemism for the Secret Police or Gestapo and their departments. The term had to be used without quotation marks in correspondence by the representatives of the Jewish Community.

Auschwitz; Polish: Oswiecim:
The largest Nazi concentration camp and extermination camp situated in the city of Oswiecim, in Galicia, in Poland, southeast of Kattowitz (Katowice). After the beginning of the war and the annexing of Poland it was situated in the Gau i.e. administrative districti, of Oberschlesien/Upper Silesian and thereby incorporated into the Reich ("Großdeutsche Reich"/Greater Germany").
Heinrich Himmler ordered the establishment of the first camp on April 27, 1940, and the first transport of Polish political prisoners arrived on June 14. This small "Auschwitz I" was supplemented in October 1941 by "Auschwitz II", or Auschwitz-Birkenau, located outside the nearby village of Brzezinka (Birkenau in German). There the SS later developed a huge extermination complex - including "Badeanstalten" ("bath houses") used for gassing, "Leichenkeller" ("corpse ovens") - all for the "final solution", the annihilation of European Jews. Another camp, near the village of Dwory, later called "Auschwitz III" and around 40 satellite camps became in May 1942 slave-labour camps supplying workers for the large chemical and synthetic-rubber works of IG Farben nearby. From 1940 to 1945 the commandant of all the Auschwitz camps was SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) Rudolf Franz Hoess. Upon arrival in freight cars, Jewish prisoners were subjected to a "Selektion" ("selection"): able young men and women were sent to the forced-labour camp, while the aged, the weak, and children and their mothers were killed. The forced-labourers too were periodically "selected", to weed out those weakened by overwork, disease, or hunger. Many prisoners were also selected for medical experiments, such as testing for cheap and quick methods of sterilization or killing, and performing autopsies on twins in search of means of increasing the "Aryan" breed. The notorious German camp doctor Dr. Dr. Josef Mengele (1911-1979) conducted the latter experiments and supervised the "Selektionen" and was alone responsible for the deaths of many thousands of people between 1943 and 1945. He was sought over decades by the public prosecutor's office in Frankfurt am Main, and elsewhere, for war crimes committed in Auschwitz. His skeleton was exhumed in June 1985 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and subsequently definitely identified.
As Soviet armies advanced, Auschwitz was gradually abandoned, most of the remaining prisoners leaving on January 17, 1945, and being transported to Dachau, Mauthausen, and other German camps: 7,650 prisoners left behind were found 10 days later by arriving Soviet troops.
In Auschwitz and its satelite camps around 4 million people were killed.

A Nazi system of concentration camps and extermination camp in and near the village of Belzec in Lublin province, in Poland. The first forced-labour camp for Polish Jews was established at this site in early 1940, and by the Autumn of the year there were three camps in the village itself and a number of satellite camps in surrounding areas, accommodating more than 11,000 prisoners at a time. Hundreds died from overwork, starvation, disease, and brutal living conditions. The camps were closed in December 1940, and the population dispersed.
In early 1942 an extermination camp was set up at Belzec, receiving Jews from Poland and later from Germany. Originally victims were exterminated in cells filled with diesel fumes; but in August 1942, Zyklon-B, the quick-acting hydrogen cyanide gas, was first demonstrated at Belzec. The camp was closed in the sping of 1943, and traces of it were obliterated: a farm was established on the site. Probably more than 600,000 persons died at Belzec, only one known survivor weas discovered at the end of the war.

Bergen-Belsen (also known as Belsen):
A German Nazi concentration camp near the villages of Bergen and Belsen, about 16km northwest of Celle, then in Prussian Hanover, Germany. Originally established in July 1943 partly as a prisoner-of-war camp and partly as a Jewish transit camp, it was designated for 10,000 prisoners but, by the war's end, held 41,000. Although Bergen-Belsen contained no gas chambers, some 37,000 prisoners died from starvation, overwork, disease, and some of the most squalid, fetid living conditions of any of Germany's camps; corpses were bulldozed into mass graves. Anne Frank, whose wartime diary would later become world famous, died at Bergen-Belsen in March 1945.
Taken by the British on April 15, 1945, it was the first such camp to be liberated by the Western Allies and received instant notoriety. The SS commandant, Joseph Kramer, the "Beast of Belsen", was tried by British military court and hanged.

"Berufsbeamtengesetz"/the Act applying to civil servants with tenure:
The Act of 7.04.1933 to re-establish the civil service with tenure. With the re-establishment of a "national" civil service with tenure civil servants could be dismissed. Civil servants who were not of "Aryan" descent i.e. Jews (by Nazi definition), as well as Slavs etc. were compulsorily retired from work.
Initially there were exceptions (Section 3, paragraph 2 of the Act) i.e. civil servants who had fought on the front during the 2nd World War, or whose father, or whose son had died fighting in the war.

"Blutschutzgesetz"/"Blood Protection Act":
The Act of 15.09.1935 to "protect German blood and German honour".
Following this Act marriages were forbidden between "Jews" and "German" nationals or those with "generically related blood". Extramarital contact between these groups of people was also forbidden.

Until freedom of trade was granted in the 19th century craftsmen who were not Guild members and who did not possess a master craftsman's certificate, i.e. working like hares in hiding, were hunted. Guild members sought to find such "illegal" craftsmen so as to destroy their tools and thereby curb their ability to work. In trading cities brokers who conducted their business without authorization were also hunted as "Boehnhasen"

Bürgerschaft/Hamburg Parliament:
Iniatially this was the assembly of all citizens who owned property
Today it is the democratically elected Hamburg Parliament, following the Hamburg Constitution of 6.06.1952.
On 14.10.1933 the Hamburg Parliament was dissolved by the Nazis.

One of the first and biggest of the German Nazi concentration camps located on a wooded hill about 7km northwest of Weimar, then in Thuringia, Germany. Set up in 1937, it complemented the concentration camps of Sachsenhausen to the north and Dachau to the south. In World War II it held about 20,000 prisoners, most of whom worked as slave labourers in nearby factories in 12-hour shifts round the clock. Although there were no gas chambers, hundreds perished monthly through disease, malnutrition, exhaustion, beatings, and executions. The camp contained an official department for medical research, the Division for Typhus and Virus Research of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS, whose doctors and technicians used inmates to test the effects of viral infections and vaccines. Buchenwald concentration camp was run with martinet discipline, and from 1939-1945, Ilsa Koch, the "Witch of Buchenwald", wife of the SS commandant, achieved infamy for her aggressive sadism.

Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD/Head of the Security Police and the SD:
This was the title given to the head of the Reichssicherheits-Hauptamt (RSHA)/ Head of Reich Security Main Office in Berlin. The RSHA was established on 27.09.1939 by decree of the Reichsführer SS (RFSS) and Head of German Police, Heinrich Himmler. From 1939-1942 Reinhard Heydrich was the Head of Reich Security Main Office. His successor was Ernst Kaltenbrunner. The Head of Reich Security Main Office was subordinate only to Heinrich Himmler as Head of Gestapo and SD, who in turn was subordinate only to Adolf Hitler.

Chelmno (German Kulmhof):
Nazi extermination camp on the Ner River, a tributory of the Warta, in western Poland. It opened in December 1941 and closed in January 1945. Estimates of the numbers executed (mostly Polish Jews) range from 170,000 to 360,000. The facilities included large trucks, the entrances to which were elaborately disguised and marked "To the showers"; in them victims were gassed by exhaust fumes, and the corpses were then driven to mass graves in nearby forests or, after 1942, transferred to newly constructed crematoriums. Chelmno acquired a special reputation for its "efficient" bone-crushing machine ("Knochenmühle"). From August 1944 to January 1945 the SS burned and obliterated the installations and sought to kill all known inmates, in an attempt to erase all traces of the camp. Only two Jewish survivors were found after the war.

The first German Nazi concentration camp in Germany, established on March 10, 1933, slightly more than five weeks after Adolf Hitler became chancellor. Built on the outskirts of the town of Dachau, about 16km north of Munich, it became the model and training centre for all other SS-organized camps. During World War II the main camp was supplemented by about 150 satellite camps scattered throughout southern Germany and Austria, all of which collectively were called Dachau. (This southern system complemented the camps for central and northern Germany, at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen.) In the course of Dachau's history, at least 160,000 prisoners passed through the main camp and 90,000 through the satellite camps. Incomplete records indicate that at least 32,000 of the inmates died there, through the "natural diminution" of disease, malnutrition, and physical oppression; but numberless more were transshipped to the extermination camps in Poland.
Dacau was the first and most important camp at which German doctors and scientists set up laboratories to perform medical experiments on involantary inmates, using them as guinea pigs for such experiments as (1) determining the human effects of sudden increases and decreases in atmospheric pressure; (2) studying the effects of freezing on warm-blooded creatures; (3) infecting prisoners with malaria and treating them with various drugs of unknown effects; (4) testing for the effects of drinking seawater or going without food or water. Continued throughout World War II, such experiments and the harsh living conditions made Dachau one of the most notoious of camps. After the war, the scientists and doctors from this and other camps were tried at Nürmberg in the "Doctor's Trial"; seven were sentenced to death.

An institution peculiar to Hamburg that goes back to the early democratic development of the Hansa city. A Deputation consisted of the responsible Senator and 15 "burgerlichen" members. A Deputation was elected by the Hamburg Bürgerschaft (parliament) and held office until the next election. Its function was to give informed advice to civil service departments. Each department had such a Deputation.

Einjährigenschein/Lower School Certificate, Einjährig Freiwillige/One Year Volunteer:
Conscription with a certain certificate of education (i.e. comparable to the first public examination in secondary schools; English O-Levels) was established in Prussia in 1814 and later adopted by all German military units. Such volunteers, who had, at their own cost, to clothe, equip and cater for themselves, were discharged as reserve officer cadets after one year's national service.

Emancipation (equal rights for Jews):
In Germany the word emancipation was first applied to equal rights for Jews after 1831. On 23. February 1848 Article 16 of the basic rights was passed by the Frankfurt Federal Assembly assuring Jews equal civic and civil status. This was applicable to Hamburg. However, it was not until the new Hamburg constitution of 1860 and two laws of 1864 that the emancipation of Jews in Hamburg was legally confirmed.

Erbgesessene Bürgerschaft
Property owning citizens.

Erlaß des Reichsführers SS und Chefs der deutschen Polizei of 3.12.1938
The decree prohibitting Jews from attending theatres, cinemas, cabarets, public concerts, libraries, museums, places of entertainment, ice rinks, private and public swimming baths, etc.

Protestant Lutheran

Freischule/a school providing a general education:
In addition to the specific Jewish school subjects the elements of a general education were provided by such a school.

Freiwohnungen/subsidized accommodation:
Flats that were allocated to poor families or single people at a very low rent.

Men who had fought on the front for the German Reich or its allies during the 1st World War. Men whose fathers or sons had died fighting in the 1st World War were included. Jewish Frontkämpfer were exempt from the anti-Jewish laws and regulations during the first year of the Nazi tyranny.

Fuhlsbüttel Concentration Camp and Prison
Fuhlsbüttel Concentration Camp (Fuhlsbüttel is a district of Hamburg) was called in contemporary usage "Kola-Fu", an abreviation of Konzentrationslager Fuhlsbüttel, and became within a very short time the embodiment of horror, suffering and death. From its establishment to the liberation in May 1945 over 250 men and women died due to the unbearable cicumstances, from maltreatment, or were murdered.

"Gauleitung"/"Head of Administrative District":
In 1925 Hitler appointed so-called Gauleiter at the top of the NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) i.e. Nazi Party. Individual cities and regions of the German Reich were denoted as "Gau"/administrative disticts and so-called "Gauleiter"/heads of administrative disticts were appointed. In 1939, in pre-war Germany, there were 41 of these "Gau". From 15.04.1929 Karl Otto Kaufmann (1900-1969) was the "Gauleiter" for Hamburg. On 16.05.1933 at Hitler's recommendation he was appointed "Reichsstatthalter"/"Reich Governor" in Hamburg. He was prior to this "Reichspräsident"/President" in Hamburg. As the later he had his office at No. 10 Harvestehuderweh, in the district of Rotherbaum. He was simultaneously appointed leader of the Hamburg Senate i.e. provincial government). As such he had his office in the Rathaus/Town Hall.
His deputy was Carl Vincent Krogmann (1889-1978). He was Bürgermeister/Mayor from 8.03 1933 and from 18.05.1933 held the title of "Regierender Bürgermeister"/"governing mayor".

"Geheime Staatspolizei"/"Secret State Police" i.e. Gestapo:
The Gestapo had the authority, without legal restriction, to carry out house searches, to make arrests, to send people to concentration camps, to torture, and to kill.
In 1936 Hitler made "Reichsführer-SS" (RFSS), Heinrich Himmler the head of the entire German police. The Gestapo, the criminal investigation department, and the frontier police were combined to form the Security Police. In September 1939 the Security Police and the SD i.e. the "Sicherheitsdienst"/"Security Service" of the SS ("Schutzstaffel" /"protection squad") were merged into one office in the "Reichssicherheitshauptamt" (RSHA)/ "Reich Security Main Office" in Berlin.
In 1944 the Gestapo had a personnel of 30,000.

Gesamtschule/Comprehensive School:
The Gesamtschule came into existence as a new type of school in 1961. Following primary school (6-10) the Gesamtschule is the secondary school with a middle school from 10-16 and an oberstufe/upper school from 16-19. It replaces the three separate secondary schools i.e. Haubtschule (10-15), Realschule (10-16, with additional subjects), both these schools being roughly equivalent to the former English secondary modern school, and the Gymnasium, being roughly equivalent to the English grammer school.
Kooperative Gesamtschule: children are assessed and selected during their last 2 years of primary school to attend one of the three selective schools which are situated on the same site and work more than usually closely together.

The teaching of Nazi ideology.

Gestapoleitstelle Hamburg/Gestapo Regional Headquarters Hamburg:
There were 21 Gestapo regional headquarters within the Head of Reich Security Main Office. Hamburg was one of the most important offices. Its area of jurisdiction was Hamburg and the region of Lüneburg. Its offices were in the Stadthaus and neighbouring buildings, in the Neustadt district.
The "Jewsish" Department, formerly a section of Department II B of Gestapo Regional Headquarters in "Gau" Hamburg, was made independent in 1938 as Department II B 2. The head of this Jewish Department was the former Dectective Superintendant and "SS-Hauptsturmführer"/"Head of Storm Troopers" Claus Göttsche (1899-1945), who held the post until the end of 1943.
From 1943 to 1945 the "Jewsish" Department, now renamed Department IV 4 B, was run by former Detective Secretary Stephan.
As such, between 1938 and 1945 they organized the deportation and thereby the extermination of "Jews", as defined by the Nuremberg decrees of 1935, from Hamburg and its environs. The Jewish Department was situated at No. 52 Düsternstraße until 1942, and at No. 38 Rothenbaumchaussee, the former office of the Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde/German Israelite Community, from then until the end of 1943.

Elimination of opposition.

Followers of the modern German cult of pseudo-Humanism, a form of non-Christian theism.

Literally: hooked cross.

Hamburger Plan:
The Getapo plan to establish a Jewish state in Poland. It was seen as a "solution to the Jewish Qestion" in that the Jews would not be persecuted there, and would have self rule. Göttsche, the head of the department "Jews" within the Gestapo, suggested that Dr. Plaut be made state president, Robert Solmitz be made minister of finance, and Arthur Spier minister of education.

Hannoverscher Bahnhof (1872-1906)/the former Hannoverscher Station in Hamburg:
This station was formerly situated south-west of the Hauptbahnhof/City Railway Station on the Grasbrook island in the river Elbe in the port, today Lohseplatz, named after the engineer of the river Elbe bridges. It was originally called the Venloer station and then the Pariser station, and finally in 1892 the Hannoverscher station. It was the terminus of the north-south traffic via the river Elbe bridges.
Today what remains of the building is used by a haulage contractor.
The Hannoverscher Bahnhof was the departure station for the 17 group transports of Hamburg Jews.

Hansestadt Hamburg/Hansa Town Hamburg:
This term came into force on 1.04.1938 following the "Gesetzes über Groß-Hamburg und andere Gebietsbereinigen"/"acts relating to Greater Hamburg and other areas".
The Prussian municipalities i.e. the city boroughs of Altona, Wandsbek, Harburg-Wilhelmsburg, and numerous rural communities, the city of Hamburg and its constituent state communities were incorporated. The incorporation of the former Prussian municipalities had already taken place on 1.04.1937.

School for backward children.

"Hitlerjugend" (HJ)/"Hitler Youth":
This was the Nazi youth organization with its various sub-organizations. The "Gesetz über die Hitlerjugend"/"Hitler Youth Act" of 1.12.1936 resolved that the entire German youth had to join the "Hitlerjugend".
10 year old boys and girls, on entering the "Hitlerjugend", had to swear an oath of allegiance in which they promised always to do their duty "in love and fidelity to our Führer and our Flag".
10 to 14 year old boys had to do service in the "Deutschen Jungvolk" (DJ); 14 to 18 year olds in the "Hitlerjugend".
10 to 14 year old girls entered the "Jungmädelbund" (JM); 14 to 18 year olds in the "Bund Deutscher Mädel" (BDM); for 17 to 21 year olds the "BDM-Werk", "Glaube und Schönheit" was available.
In 1939 the entire "Hitlerjugend" had circa 9 million members and circa 800,000 leaders.

Elevated railway (el).

höhere Shule:
Secondary school.

Identity Card:
From the summer of 1938 Jews were issued with a special identity card and had to take a "Jewish first name" (Sara for women, and Israel for men).

Active persecution or harassment of Jews.

Judenbörse/Jewish Stock Market:
Judenbörse was the ironic name given to the area of Jewish street trading in Hamburg.

"Judenboykott" (boycott of Jewish stores, etc.) on 1st April 1933:
The boycott of Jewish stores, wares, doctors and lawyers began on 1.04.1933.

"Judenfrage" and "Endlösung der Judenfrage"/"Jewish Problem" and "Final Solution to the Jewish Problem":
The term originates from the end of the 19th century for the fabricated question regarding Jews in particular areas of business, especially in banking and the stock market. Hitler and the NSDA (Nazi Party) intensified this "Jewish Problem" into the life-threatening "Final Solution to the Jewish Problem". This euphemistic terminology was used for the deportation and extermination of Jews from Germany and Nazi occupied Europe. The use of this terminology was already evident before the so-called Wannsee Conference. The organization of the "Final Solution to the Jewish Problem" was formulated at this conference.

An Act of 30.04.1939 was concerned with the tenancy of Jews. From the beginning of 1941, with the growing serious housing shortage following allied bombing raids, Jewish owner occupiers and tenants were forced to vacate their accommodation and accept the allocation of smaller flats.
"Judenhäuser" was the Gestapo term for buildings managed or administered by the Jüdischen Religionsverband/Jewish Religious Federation Hamburg. In the first months of 1942, i.e. before the end of March, nearly all Jews remaining in Hamburg were forced to move into these buildings. On instructions from the "Aufsichtsbehörde"/"supervisory authority" i.e. the Gestapo, the Jewish Religious Federation Hamburg had to administer, within these first few months of 1942, the removal of the then 2,400 "Jews" living in Hamburg, identifiable by the "Judenstern", into the circa 80 buildings of the Federation (the so-called "Judenhäuser"). Exempt from this action were a mere circa 280 "Judenstern" identifiable Jews, living in their own property, with relatives, in hospital, or in prison.
Following the deportation in July 1942 and after 1.08.1942 nearly all the "Jews" remaining in Hamburg were accommodated in these buildings.
This removal also then effected "Mischehen"/"mixed marriages" , initially only "nichtprivilegierte"/"non-privileged, but after 1943 also "privilegierte"/"privileged" mixed marriages.
After 15.04.1942 the accommodation in which Jews lived had to be especially identified with a "Judenstern" printed in black on white paper, similar to that compulsorily worn by Jews. This "Judenstern" had to be displayed on the door of the flat, next to the nameplate.

"Judenstern"/the Nazi use of the Star of David:
Following the 1.09.1941 nationwide "police regulation regarding the identification of Jews", all Jews above the age of six, as defined by the Nuremburg decrees, were forbidden to appear in public without the visible identification of a "Judenstern".
The "Judenstern" consisted of a palm of the hand sized, black-bordered, yellow, six-pointed star with the label "JUDE" in black letters in the centre. It had to be sewn visibly onto the left breast of the garment (Section 1, paragraph 1 and 2).
The Reichsgesetzblatt/German Law Gazette of 5.09.1941 pubicized this regulation which came into effect 14 days later on 19.09.1941.
Following the establishment of the "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland"/Reich Organization of Jews in Germany", the census of 1.04.1941 counted 31,807 "Jews", of whom 14,393 were forced to wear the "Judenstern".

On the 10.10.1941 the "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland" announced the following guidelines concerning the carrying out of the police regulation:
The "Judenstern" was to be sewn onto the garment roughly at the level of the heart, and was to be properly looked after.
"In public" was defined as all places in which such a "Jew", compulsorily wearing the "Judenstern", could meet any person who did not belong to his household.

In an order concerning the wearing of the "Judenstern" in the Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt/Jewish News of 12.06.1942, it was finally determined that the "Judenstern" was to be sewn onto working clothes i.e. jacket, blouse, shirt.

"judischer" Angeklagter/"Jewish" Accused:
Such a definition was not restricted to people of the Jewish faith.
(For the Nazi legal definition of a "Jew" see: Section 5 of the Ersten Verordnung zum Reichsbürgergesetz/First Regulation of the German Civil Law of 14.11.1935, RBG1. p 1333).

"Jüdischer Kulturbund"/"Jewish Cultural Federation":
In 1935 all Jewish cultural and artistic organizations were disbanded and amalgamated into the "Reichsverband jüdischer Kulturbund" by the order of the President of the "Reichskulturkammer"/"Reich Chamber of Culture" of 6.08.1935. The Jüdische Kulturbund Hamburg e.V. was already in existence in November 1934.

Jungfernhof Concentration Camp:
Jungfernhof Concentration Camp was situated near Riga, in Lithuania.

Kaltenkirchener Bahnhof (1884-1962)/Kaltenkirchener station:
The former Altoner terminus of the Altona-Kaltenkirchen line (35.07km).
The Kaltenkirchener Bahnhof was the departure station for at least 2 group transports of Hamburg Jews to Theresienstadt.

Kollegialgericht/Court presided over by a group of judges:
A court in which several judges sit.

In accordance with international law the imposed compulsory payments made by the occupied population to the military occupying power after defeat.

"Konzentrationslager"/Concentration Camp:
These camps were established and run during the period of the Nazi tyranny.
From the beginning of May 1940, by decree of the Head of Security Police and SD, Reinhard Heydrich (1939-1942), only the following camps were permitted to bear the name "Konzentrationslager":
Dachau (Bavaria)
Sachsenhausen (north of Berlin in Brandenburg)
Buchenwald (east central Germany near Weimar)
Flossenbürg (north east of Nürnberg on the border with Czechoslovakia)
Mauthausen (in upper Austria on the Donau River south east of Linz)
Ravensbrück (north of Berlin in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania)

From the winter of 1941/42 with the advance of the war concentration camp prisoners became important "Arbeiteinsatz"/"Work Deployment" i.e forced-labour in the war industries. This also applied to the largest Nazi concentration camp i.e. Auschwitz, which was at the same time the largest extermination camp (Auschwitz-Birkenau). Lublin-Majdanek had the same double function i.e concentration camp and extermination camp.

The following were extermination camps:
Chelmno (Kulmhof)

Krameramt/Guild of Small Shopkeepers:
Guild of Small Shopkeepers.

"Kristallnacht"/"Reichskristallnacht" (Pogrom Night)
In the pogrom on the night of 9th/10th November 1938 ("Reichskristallnacht") the open and systematic violence against the Jews began throughout Germany, with the destruction of synagogues, the smashing of windows of Jewish shops, the expropriation of Jewish enterprises, and imprisonment. These measures caused the intended mass exodus of Jews from Germany.
Over 100 individuals were murdered , almost 200 synagogues and 7,500 shops destroyed.
In the days following the pogrom the Gestapo arrested at least 879 Hamburg Jews, who were either imprisoned in the Fuhlsbüttel police prison for a long period of time or were transferred to concentration camps, most to Oranienburg concentration camp. On 10.11.1938 217 Hamburg Jews were arrested, on 11.11.1938 473, on 12.11.1938 77, on 14.11.1938 51, on 15.11.1938 55 and on 17.11.1938 6.

A city in central Poland, southwest of Warsaw. In 1939 it belonged to "Wartegau" (Gau = Nazi term for an administative district) then within the Third Reich. In 1939, before the outbreak of the war, Lodz had 233,000 Jewish inhabitants.
Under German occupation it was renamed "Litzmannstadt". In February 1940 a ghetto was established here by the SS ("Schutzstaffel"/"Protection Squad") for circa 200,000 Jews. Following the disbandment of the ghetto in 1944 only 900 Jews had survived. The majority of the ghetto inhabitants were murdered in the extermination camp Chelmno (Kulmhof).

(Gymnasium): girls' grammar school.

Madagascar Plan:
The Madagascar Plan was devised in 1940, after the fall of France. The island of Madagascar was to be placed under the jurisdiction of Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler and turned into a reservation on which millions of European Jews were to be settled. This plan, which could never be implemented without peace with Great Britain and which became impractical after the German invasion of Russia, was eventually aborted.

Nazi concentration camp and extermination camp on the outskirts of the city of Lublin, in Poland. In Autumn 1942 it was converted into a death camp for the Jews, imported first from Bohemia and Moravia and then from Poland, The Netherlands and Greece. In the first months, the victims were shot down by mass gunfire in a nearby forest, but afterwards they were herded into gas chambers built for mass executions and using Zyklon-B, which produced quick-killing hydrogen cyanide fumes. The bodies were cremated.
Branch camps, such as Travniki, were added nearby. In November 1943, after the rebellion at the extermination camp of Sobibor, most of the prisoner population at Majdanek was annihilated, and the SS tried to obliterate traces of the massacre. When the Soviet armies liberated the camps on July 24, 1944, only a few hundred prisoners remained alive. Estimates of the total numbers who died at Majdanek whether through execution or privation vary widely from 200,000 to 1,500,000.

Nazi concentration camp southeast of Linz on the River Donau, in the former Ostmark (Austria), at that time part of the German Reich.
It was in existence from August 1938 to May 1945, and had 45 satellite camps. Circa 110,000 pisoners died in these camps. It was renown for its atrocities.

Mengele, Joseph ("Angel of Death") (16.03.1911-7.02.1979):
German Todesengel. Nazi doctor at Auschwitz extermination camp (1943-45), who directed the operation of the gas chambers and conducted medical experiments on inmates in pseudoscientific racial studies.
Mengele was born in Günzburg in Bavaria and studied philosophy in Munich in the 1920's, coming under the influence of the racial ideology of Alfred Rosenberg, and then took a medical degree at the University of Frankfurt am Main. Becoming an ardent Nazi, he joined, in 1934, the research staff of a newly founded Institut für Erbbiology and Rassenhygiene (Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene). During World War II, he served as a medical officer with the Waffen SS in France and Russia, and in 1943 was appointed by Heinrich Himmler to be chief doctor at Auschwitz, where he and his staff selected incoming Jews for labour or extermination and where he supervised medical experiments on inmates to discover means of increasing fertility (to increase the German race).
He escaped internment after the war and went underground. In 1985 a multinational team of forensic experts determined that Mengele took the identity of Wolfgang Gerhard (old-time Nazi), died of a stroke while swimming on 7.02.1979, and was buried under Gerhard's name.

School classes that began the school year on 29th September i.e. Michaelmas, the feast of St. Michael the archangel.

Today the capital of Byelorussia. In 1926 Minsk had a Jewish population of circa 54,000, and in 1941 a Jewish population of 80,000. Following the German invasion of Russia, the SS (Schutzstaffel"/"Potection Squad") in July 1941 established two ghettos for circa 40,000 Jews. The "deutsche"/"German" ghetto, with its initial 6,500 Jews from Germany, existed until September 1943. Barely a handful of individuals from ghetto No. 2 survived.

"Mischehen"/"mixed marriages"
In accordance with a decree from the Reichsinnenministers/Reich Home Secretary of 26.04.1935 the term "Mischehen"/ "mixed marriages" was only to be employed in the sense of "Rassen-Mischehe"/"racial mixed marriage", and not for religious mixed-marriages.
Following the "Blutschutzgesetz"/"Blood Protection Act" of 15.09.1935, marriages were forbidden between "Jews" and "German" nationals, or those with "generically related blood".
In accordance with a secret order from Generalfeldmarschall/Field Marshal Herman Göring of 28.12.1938 the following categories were defined, and announcements made regarding "Mischehen"/"mixed marriages":
1. "Mischehen" with children (the children were known as "Mischlinge 1. Grade"/"half-castes grade 1") were:
(a) When the father was "German" and the mother "Jewish", the family was permitted to remain in their flat.
(b) When the father was "Jewish" and the mother "German", the family could provisionally remain in their flat.
2. "Mischehen" without children were:
(a) When the husband was "German" and the wife "Jewish", the couple were permitted to remain in their flat.
(b) When the husband was "Jewish" and the wife "German", the couple were defined as "reine"/"pure" Jews.
Both of the above categories, i.e. 2. (a) and (b), could be accommodated in "Judenhäuser" (buildings managed or administered by the Jewish Religious Association in Hamburg), or in Jewish districts.
In accordance with the same order, if the "German" wife divorced the "Jewish" husband, she returned to the "deutschen Blutsverband"/"German union of blood", and all disadvantages ceased to apply to her.

The same distinctions were made regarding "Mischehen"/"mixed marriages" in the "Gesetz über Mietverhältnisse mit Juden"/"Act regarding Jewish tenancy" of 30.04.1939. The advantages of the Tenancy Act was extended towards "Mischehen" with children (i.e. "Mischlinge 1. Grade"/"half-castes grade 1"), even after divorce.

According to the nationwide "Polizeiverordnung über die Kennzeichnung der Juden"/"police regulation regarding the identification of Jews" of 1.09.1941 i.e. the obigatory wearing of the "Judenstern"/the Nazi use of the Star of David, Sections 1 and 2 were not applicable to:
(a) "Mischehen", where the children were not defined as Jewish (according to the Nuremberg decrees of 1935); this also applied when the only son had died in the current war.
(b) A Jewish wife living in a childless "Mischehen", during the duration of the marriage.

"Mischehen" were further categorized as "privilegierten Mischehen"/"privileged mixed-marriage" and as "nicht privilegierten Mischehen"/"non-privileged mixed-marriage".

The following table shows how "Mischehen" were classified:

  Children not of the Jewish faith
("Mischlinge 1. Grade")
Childless Children of the Jewish faith
Jewish wife
German husband
privileged privileged non-privileged
Jewish husband
German wife
privileged non-privileged non-privileged

At the beginning of 1939, in pre-war Germany, there were circa 30,000 "Mischehen", i.e. almost 1 in 10 of all "Jews" (as defined by the Nuremberg decrees of 1935) lived in such a marriage. At the beginning of 1943 there were still over 27,000 "Mischehen" existing in Germany. "Privilegierten Mischehen"/"privileged mixed-marriage" exceeded "nicht privilegierten Mischehen"/"non-privileged mixed-marriage" in a relation of 3:1. The majority of parents living in "Mischehen" brought up their children outside the Jewish faith.
"Jews" (as defined by the Nuremberg decrees of 1935) living in "Privilegierten Mischehen" /"privileged mixed-marriage" and "nicht privilegierten Mischehen"/"non-privileged mixed-marriage" were exempted from deportation until 1944.
On 6.10.1942 from a total of 1,852 "Jews" remaining in Hamburg there were still 1,245 living in a mixed marriage. Of these 1,245, 223 were living in a "nicht privilegierten Mischehen"/"non-privileged mixed-marriage" and 1,022 in a "privilegierten Mischehen"/"privileged mixed-marriage".


Nazi laws and regulations initially defined "Mischlinge"/"half-castes" as children having two, or one, "volljüdischen"/"completely Jewish" grandparent(s).
"Mischlinge"/"half-castes" with two "volljüdischen"/"completely Jewish" grandparents were later always referred to as "Mischlinge 1. Grades"/"half-castes grade 1" or "Halbjuden"/"half Jewish".
"Mischlinge"/"half-castes" with one "volljüdischen"/"completely Jewish" grandparent were later referred to as "Mischlinge 2. Grades"/"half-castes grade 2" or "Vierteljuden"/"quarter Jewish".
"Jüdische Mischlinge"/"Jewish half-castes" were also referred to as "mischblütig"/"of mixed blood".
The terms "Mischlinge 1. and 2. Grades"/"half-castes grades 1 and 2" were used relatively late in the laws and regulations.
In accordance with Section 2, Paragraph 2 of the "Verordnung (VO) zum Reichsbürgergesetz"/ "Reich Citizenship Act" of 14.11.1935 "jüdische Mischlinge"/"Jewish half-castes" were defined as decendants of one or two of the "Rasse"/"race" of "volljüdischen"/"completely Jewish" grandparent(s), provided they were defined as Jews by Section 5 Paragraph 2 of the same regulation.
Following this regulation only "jüdische Mischlinge"/"Jewish half-castes" with two "volljüdischen"/"completely Jewish" grandparent(s) were defined as Jews.
These were later referred to as "Geltungsjude"/"Jews by definition".
The conditions under which such a "jüdischer Mischling"/"Jewish half-caste" was defined as a Jew were:
(a) He/she was a member of the Jewish religious community at the time of the enactment of the "Reichsbürgergesetzes"/"Reich Citizenship Act" of 15.05.1935, or joined later.
(b) He/she was married to a "Jew" at the time of the enactment of the "Reichsbürgergesetz" /"Reich Citizenship Act" of 15.05.1935, or was later so married.
(c) He/she was a child of at least one Jewish parent at the time of the enactment of the "Blutschutzgesetz"/"Blood Protection Act" of 15.09.1935.
(d) He/she was a child of an extra-marital relationship with a "Jew" and born after 31.07.1936.
The regulations (c) and (d) applied explicitly to Section 5, Paragraph 1 of the first regulation of the "Reichsbürgergesetzes"/"Reich Citizenship Act" of 15.05.1935. Following this individuals were defined as Jews when they had three of the "Rasse"/"race" of "volljüdischen" /"completely Jewish" grandparents.
Grandparents were defined "volljüdisch"/"completely Jewish" when they had been members of the Jewish religious community (Section 2, Paragraph 2, Clause 2).
In accordance with Section 2, Paragraph 1 of the "Berufsbeamtengesetz"/the Act applying to civil servants with tenure of 7.04.1933 a "Mischlinge 2. Grades"/"half-castes grade 2" was defined as "nicht-arisch"/"non-Aryan" i.e. a Jew.
It was sufficient that one parent or one grandparent was "nicht-arisch"/"non-Aryan". In the German Reich of 1939 there were circa 64,000 "Mischlinge 1. Grades"/"half-castes grade 1" and circa 43,000 "Mischlinge 2. Grades"/"half-castes grade 2".

mosaisch=israelitisch=jüdisch (Religion)
Mosaic=Israelite=Jewish (Religion)
Derived from Moses, the founder of the Mosaic religion.

Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellen-Organisation (NSBO):

Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP)/Nazi Party:
The NSDAP was the sole political party permitted in Germany from 14.07.1933 until the unconditional surrender of Germany in May 1945. The SA ("Sturmabteilung"/"Storm Troopers") and the SS ("Schutzstaffel"/"Protection Squad") were "Gliederungen"/subdivisions of the Party. In 1945 the NSDAP had circa 8·5 million members.

Nationalsozialistische Handwerks-, Handels-, und Gewerbeorganisation (NS-Hago):

Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (National Socialist Social Welfare):
The NSV was officially founded by Hitler on 3.05.1933 in contradiction to the Nazi doctrine of the survival of the fittest, but in agreement with totalitarian control of every aspect of German life. It replicated and competed with local government social provision. It reflected Nazi racial doctrine in discriminating against the "asocial", "inferior races", the "genetically defect" and Jews. It completely negated the 20th century concept of care and support of the needy, and of the rights of the individual.
The area of care included:
winter relief organization
relief organization for "mother and child", which included economic aid, job mediation, housing welfare, mother care: care for the expectant mother, women in childbed and babies, for single mothers, and care for the toddler and school child
rest homes for Nazi party members
provision of accommodation and estates
youth work
health care
migrant workers
care of discharged prisoners
care of alcoholics and other addicts

Nazi concentration camp in marshy country near the community of Neuengamme; today in the district of Bergedorf, Hamburg. It existed as a main camp from June 1940 to May 1945. It had at least 73 satellite camps of which 17 were situated in the Hamburg area. Circa 55,000 people died in these camps, from disease, malnutrician, and exhaustion, and several thousand on May 3, 1945, during a British air raid on river Elbe ships to which inmates had been transferred. Of the 106,000 prisoners over 10,000 were "Jews", from various countries.

NSV; "Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt":
"Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt"/National Socialist Popular Welfare.

1. City in northern Bavaria: scene of annual Nazi rallies (1933-1938).
2. The anti-Semitic Nuremburg decrees (1935).
3. The trials of Nazi leaders for their war crimes (1945-1946).

Nürnberger Gesetze"/"Nuremberg Laws":
These were the 3 laws promulgated on 15.09.1935 at the national party conference of the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP)/Nazi Party in Nuremberg.
These were the:
1. Reichsbürgergesetz (Reich Citizenship Act), defining citizenship; Jews were excluded.
2. Blutschutzgesetz (Blood Protection Act), marriage between "Jews" and "Germans", and other contact, was forbidden.
3. Reichsflaggengesetz.
The first two laws were also termed the "Nürnberger Rassengesetze"/"Nuremberg Racial Laws". The regulations of the "1. Verordnung (VO) zum Reichsbürgergesetz"/"1. regulation of the Reich Citizenship Act of 14.11.1935 had important consequences for Jews as it, from then on, determined who was a "Jew":
According to Section 5 Paragraph 1 a "Jew" was someone who had at least 3 of the "Rasse"/"race" "volljüdischen"/"completely Jewish" grandparents.
Section 2 Paragraph 2 Clause 2 formulated its application.
According to Section 2 Paragraph 2 an individual was classified as "volljüdisch"/"completely Jewish" when one grandparent was "ohne weiteres"/"sufficient in itself" a member of the Jewish religious community.
According to Section 5 Paragraph 2 an individual was classified as a "judische Mischling"/"Jewish half-caste" when the child had 2 "volljüdisch"/ "completely Jewish" grandparents:
(a) He/she was a member of the Jewish religious community at the time of the enactment of the "Reichsbürgergesetzes"/"Reich Citizenship Act" of 15.05.1935, or joined later.
(b) He/she was married to a "Jew" at the time of the enactment of the "Reichsbürgergesetz" /"Reich Citizenship Act" of 15.05.1935, or was later so married.
(c) He/she was a child of at least one Jewish parent at the time of the enactment of the "Blutschutzgesetz"/"Blood Protection Act" of 15.09.1935.
(d) He/she was a child of an extra-marital relationship with a "Jew" and born after 31.07.1936.

Nürnberg Trials (Nuremberg Trials):
A series of trials held in Nürnberg in 1945-46 in which former Nazi leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The indictment lodged against them contained four counts: (1) crimes against peace, i.e. the planning, initiating, and waging of wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements; (2) crimes against humanity, i.e. exterminations, deportations, and genocide; (3) war crimes, i.e. violations of the laws of war; and (4) "a common plan or conspiracy to commit" the criminal acts listed in the first three counts.
The authority of the International Military Tribunal to conduct these trials stemmed from the London Agreement of August 8, 1945. On that date, representatives from the United States, Great Britain, the U.S.S.R. and the provisional government of France signed an agreement that included a charter for an international military tribunal to conduct trials of major Axis war criminals whose offences had no particular geographic location. The tribunal was given the authority to find any individual guilty of the commission of war crimes (counts 1-3 listed above) and to declare any group or organization to be criminal in charaxter. If an organization was found to be criminal, the prosecution could bring individuals to trial for having been members, and the criminal nature of the group or organization could no longer be questioned. A defendant was entitled to receive a copy of the indictment, to offer any relevant explanation to the charges brought against him, and to be represented by counsel and confront and cross-examine the witnesses. The tribunal rejected the major defences offered by the defendants. First, it rejected the contention that only a state, and not individuals, could be found guilty of war crimes; the tribunal held that crimes of international law are committed by men and that only by punishing individuals who commit such crimes can the provisions of international law be enforced. Second, it rejected the argument that the trial and adjudication were ex post facto. The tribunal responded that such acts had been regarded as criminal prior to World War II.

From the end of the 1520s in Hamburg the Oberalten were honary guardians of the poor. They had constitutional authority and could advise and decide on matters concerning the government and administration of the city.

Senior primary school teacher.

This school developed from the Realschule (secondary school excluding Latin), and at the end of the 19th century became the third type of secondary school awarding the higher qualification of A-Levels (Abitur), the others being the Gymnasium (teaching the Humanities), and the Realgymnasium (teaching Mathematics, the Sciences and Modern Languages, plus compulsory Latin).
The Oberrealschule specifically taught the Natural Sciences and Languages. In 1938 the Oberrealschule became the Oberschule.

Grammar school

The new name given to the Education Authority in Hamburg after the initial name of Schulaufsichsbehörde. Its offices were built in 1911-1913 at No. 25 Dammtorstraße. A commemorative plaque has been erected. Later during the Nazi period its title was changed to "Landesunterrichtsbehörde" (L. U. B.).
Today the Education Authority has the title of Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung/Education and Training Autority.

School inspector.

Seventh year of German secondary school.

Operation Harvest Festival:
In Operation Harvest Festival on 3-4 November 1943 about 43,000 Jews were shot in one of the largest massacres of the Holocaust. They represented the largest, most easterly concentration of Jews still in German hands, in the Lublin district in the eastern part of the Polish Generalgouvernement i.e. the residual territory run by Hans Frank in Cracow, and not directly incorporated into the Reich.

School classes that begann the school year at Easter.

An organized persecution or extermination of a national, religious or ethnic minority, especially the Jews.
Via Yiddish from Russian: destruction, from po- like + grom thunder.

"priviligierte Mischehe"/"privileged mixed-marriages":
During the Nazi tyranny individuals or groups of people living in a " mixed marriage" were legally defined as "privileged" when they had special status in regard to the law concerning "mixed marriage". Jews living in a "privileged mixed marriage", consisting of a Jewish wife and a non-Jewish husband, initially had a certain special legal status in comparison to other Jews. However, this special status was increasingly eroded with the intensification of the "Endlösung der Judenfrage"/"final solution to the Jewish question".

"Radau-Antisemitismus" ("Hooligan Antisemitism"):
Jewish persecution in the tradition of east-european pogroms with wanton hate-filled street violence.

Racial doctrine.

The primary administrative division of a Land i.e. state.

1. The Holy Roman Empire (First Reich).
2. The Hohenzollern empire from 1871-1919 (Second Reich).
3. The Weimar Republic from 1919-1933.
4. The Nazi dictatorship from 1933-1945 (Third Reich).

Reichsbürgergesetz of 15.09.1935/Act defining German nationality:
Following the enactment of this law German citizens were defined as "German" nationals or "artverwanten Blutes"/"of generically related blood", who proved by their "conduct" that they were willing and "suitable" to serve the German people and nation. "Reichsbürger" alone had full political rights.

"(Reichs-)Erlaß des Reichsministers für Erziehung und Unterricht über den Schulbesuch jüdischer Kinder"/"Decree of the Reich Minister of Education concerning the school attendance of "Jewish" children" of 15.11.1938:
This decree enacted the exclusion of all "Jewish" children from attending German schools.

Reichskulturkammer (RKK):
An instrument for forcing into line and controlling the entire cultural life in Germany as every cultural activity demanded membership of one of the RKK's seven subordinate associations:
Reichskammer der bildenden Künste

RM= Reichsmark (currency).

The council of representatives of state governments within Germany from 1919-1934.

1. Diet, (in medieval Germany) the estates or a meeting of the estates.
2. The legislative assembly representing the people in the North German Confederation (1867-1871) and in the German empire (1871-1919).
3. The sovereign assembly of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933).
4. The building in Berlin in which this assembly met.
Its destruction by fire on 27.02.1933 (probably by agents of the Nazi government) marked the end of the Weimar democracy.

"Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland"/"Reich Organization of Jews in Germany":
This organization was founded in accordance with the "10. Verordnung zum Reichsbürgergesetz" /"10. regulation of the Reich Citizenship Act" of 4.07.1939.
All "Jews" (as defined by the Nuremberg decrees) living in the Reich became compulsory members. The "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland" was a registered society with its office in Berlin. The local branches of the "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland" replaced the local Jewish religious associations. The organizations had the goal of promoting the forced emigration. It was also responsible for Jewish education and social welfare.
The "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland" was subordinate to the Reichsinnenminister/ Reich Home Secretary. He had the power to disband Jewish societies, organizations and charitable foundations, or to order their incorporation within the "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland"

Former term for inspection of teachers and teaching by the school inspectorate (HMI).

Today once again the capital of independent Latvia, as it was between 1919 and 1940.
In June 1940 it was annexed by the USSR as part of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939. Riga was occupied by German troops during the Second World War from July 1941 to October 1944.
The Jews of the Hamburg transports of 6.12.1941, as all Jews of other transports to Riga, arrived at the Shirotava railway station (goods station), situated in the south of Riga. As there was no more room in the ghetto, which was situated 5-6 km northwest of Shirotava, the Hamburg transport, and three others, were diverted to Jungferhof (JH). Jungferhof, an estate situated circa 5 km east of Shirotava railway station, served as a "small" concentration camp. Immediately on arrival, or shortly thereafter, the able-bodied men were selected out and taken to Salispils, situated circa 16 km east of Riga.
In order to establish a model agricultural estate, on 26.03.1942 all the old and sick, all children under 13-14 years of age, with their mothers, and almost all people over the age of 46-50 were taken to the Bickernicker/Bikernieki Forest, situated 4-5 km east of the Riga ghetto, and there shot.
3,000 to 4,000 Jews were murdered.

Rosenberg, Alfred (1893-1946):
German Nazi politician and writer, who devised much of the racial ideology of Nazism. He was hanged for war crimes.

Sachsenhausen (also called Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg)
One of the majorGerman Nazi concentration camps, located near the village of Sachsenhausen, 3km noth of Oranienburg, nortwest of Berlin. The camp was established in 1936 for north Germany, as a part of the system that would include Buchenwald, for central Germany, and Dachau, for southern Germany. Its first great influx of prisoners began in 1938, after the November 9/10 "Reichskristallnacht" porom, when 10,000 Jews were rounded up from Berlin, Hamburg, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania and shipped briefly to Sachsenhausen. The camp's inmate population rose to between 20,000 and 35,000 by the time of World War II. Of the total of some 200,00 prisoners who went through Sachsenhausen, 100,000 died, principally from disease, execution, and overwork in local armaments factories.

Nazi satellite camp of Neuengamme Concentration Camp situated in the former town of Salzwedel, south east of Lüneburg. It existed from July 1944 to april 1945. At the end of March 1945 there remained more than 1,500 female prisoners in the camp. They were employed in the production of land-mines.

SA or S.A. ("Sturmabteilung"/"Storm Troopers"):
Nazi terrorist militia, within the NSDAP (Nazi Party), founded in 1921.
Following the acquisition of power by Hitler and the NSDAP (Nazi Party) on 30.01.1933 the SA acquired the function of an auxiliary police force and, amoung other things, the task of instigating action against the Jews. The demands made for himself and his troops by the Head of the SA, "Stabchef" Ernst Röhm lead to (renewed) conflict within the Nazi Party.
Hitler put an end to this infighting by having the top SA leaders and Ernst Röhm shot on the night of 30.06./1.07./1934. The assassination was carried out by the SS ("Schutzstaffel" /"Protection Squad"), which from this time on became independent of the SA. After 1934 the SA no longer played a significant political role within the party.

SD (SS Security Service):
The SD was the internal and external security service, commanded by Reinhard Heydrich, and was responsible for monitoring domestic opinion, surveillance of ideological opponents, and espionage abroad. Its mood-monitoring activities were made possible by a network of approximately 30,000 "honorary" agents. Unlike the Gestapo and Kripo it had no powers of arrest, detention or interrogation.

Sixth and seventh year of German secondary school.

A school class of selected pupils.

Following the Hamburg Constitution of 6.06.1952 the Senat became the executive body of the Hamburg parliament (Article 33). The members of the Senat are elected by the Burgerschaft (parliament). These Senators elect one of their members President (First Mayor) for the duration of one calendar year /Article 41).
From 1933 the "Regierende"/First Mayor was given the title of "Reichsstatthalter"/ Reich Governor in Hamburg.

The first year of the earlier Gymnasium school (entry form = 5th school year)

Simultanschule/interdenominational school:
An interdenominational school for all pupils regardless of their, or their teacher's, religious confession.

Nazi extermination camp in the forest near the village of Sobibor in Lubin province, in Poland. Built in March 1942, it operated from May 1942 until October 1943, and its five gas chambers killed a total of about 250,000 Jews, mostly frm Poland and occupied areas of the Soviet Union. On October 14, 1943, the Jewish labourers at the camp rose in revolt and killed several SS supervisors and Ukranian guards before being captured, shot down, or decimated in the surrounding minefields or farmlands. Only about 30 ultimately escaped. Immediately after the revolt, all survivors were killed, the installations erased, and the area planted over with trees.

SS: "Schutzstaffel"/"Protection Squad":
A paramilitary organization within the Nazi Party that provided Hitler's bodyguard, security forces including the Gestapo, concentration camp guards, its own business concerns, and a corp of combat troops (the "Waffen-SS"); in 1944 the Waffen-SS was 950,000 men strong.
It was founded in 1925 as a protection squad for Adolf Hitler. It was initially a subsidiary organization of the SA ("Sturmabteilung"/"Storm Troopers"). From 1929 Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) as "Reichsführer-SS" was its head.
In 1934, following the so-called Röhm putsch (Erst Röhm (1887-1934) German soldier, who organized (1921-1934) Hitler's storm troopers; murdered on Hitler's orders). Hitler made it an independent organization. In 1936 Heinrich Himmler was made "Reichsführer SS und Chef der Deutschen Polizei"/ Reichsführer SS and Head of German Police". Through this increase in Himmer's power the SS became the most powerful organization within Nazi German.
The ss, including its subsidiary organizations, was declared a criminal organization by the Nuremberg Trials.
Its ranks corresponded to those of the military forces (Wehrmacht) etc. :

SS Ranks Wehrmacht Ranks English Ranks
SS-Scharführer Unterfeldwebel sergeant
SS-Untersturmführer Leutnant (second) lieutenant
SS-Obersturmführer Oberleutnant lieutenant
SS-Hauptsturmführer Hauptmann captain
SS-Sturmbannführer Major major
SS-Obersturmbannführer Oberstleutnant lieutenant colonel

Standgericht/summary court-martial:
The regulation, under military law, that permitted the military commander, in times of emergency, to invoke a summary court-martial which had the authority to impose and execute a sentence of death.

Secondary school teacher.

"Sturmabteilung"; SA:
Storm Troopers.

Theresienstadt; Czech: Terezin:
A town in the former Czechoslovakia, northwest of Prague, which in 1938 belonged to the protectorate of Böhmen and Mähren, within the German Reich. This Nazi ghetto and so-called "Polizeigefängnis" (Police Prison) was established in the town by the SS ("Schutzstaffel"/ "Protection Squad") and from June 1942 extended over the entire town; it existed until May 1945.
The "Polizeigefängnis", that increasingly took on the character of a concentration camp, was already established within the small fortress by June 1940.
From November 1941 to May 1945, 140,000 people were sent to Theresienstaft. 33,000 died of starvation, disease, exhaustion and torture (circa 2,500 iof these in the Police Prison). 87,000 people were transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz and other concentration camps. Only 5% survived.

Secondary school for girls.

Major Nazi concentration camp and extermination camp, located near the railway village of Treblinka, between the Polish towns of Siedlce and Malkinia, 100 km northeast of Warsaw. There were two camps: the first Treblinka 4 km from the station, was opened in December 1941 as a small forced-labour camp; the second, larger, and ultrasecret camp, called "T. II" (i.e. Treblinka II) in official dispatches, was located 1.5 km from the first and opened in July 1942 as an extermination camp.
After being unloaded from arriving railway freight cars, the victims of Treblinka II were separated by sex, stripped of their clothing and other possessions, marched into buildings containing "bath houses", and gassed from ceiling pipes issuing from diesel engines. (The camp may later have also used the poison gas Zyklon-B). A few hundred Ukranians and about 1,000 to 1,500 Jewish male prisoners were employed in performing the executions, removing gold teeth, dentures, and other valuables from the corpses, and transporting the remains to mass graves. The total number executed at Treblinka has been estimated at more than 731,000.
On August 2, 1943, a group of Jewishprisoner-workers rose in a planned revolt, killing some Ukranian guards and one SS officer but generally failing in a confusion of mistiming and ill luck. Most of the 200 or more who did escape were eventually killed or recaptured. The facilities at Treblinka II were closed in October 1943; those at Treblinka I in May 1944. Only about 50 survivors could be found after the end of the war.

Eighth year of a German secondary school (lower sixth).

Formerly the fourth year of the Gymnasium (Grammar School), the eighth school year.

NS term for a national (of Germany).

NS term: enemy of the people.

NS term: People's Court.

School providing basic primary and secondary education.

Wannsee Konference/Wannsee Conference:
On 20.01.1942 in the Berlin suburb of Grissen-Wannsee, 15 leading Nazi bureaucrats headed by SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich (and including Adolf Eichmann) met to discuss the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". The decision taken was to systematically evacuate all Jews to camps in the East, where they would be "treated accordingly". Some would be exterminated outright (the words extermination and execution were not used officially), and others (fit for work) would be organized into huge labour battalions; exhausting work and meagre food would ultimately spell the death of survivors, or their eventual selection for extermination.

Zbaszyn, Polish town where 1,000 Polish Jews from Hamburg were deported on 28.10.1938:
On 28.10.1938 the security police and Gestapo arrested 1,000 Hamburg Jews of Polish nationality and deported them from Hamburg and brutally forced them over the German-Polish border near the Polish town of Zbaszyn. The fate of the majority is unknown. In the first half of 1939 a minority were allowed to return to Hamburg under the condition that, within the following few weeks, they acquire ratification of "emigration" from the financial department and other government departments, and then immediately "emigtrate". Many did not achieve this within the set time limit and were transported to Fuhlsbüttel Concentration Camp by the Gestapo. There are a total of 355 established victims of the original deportation transport on 28.10.1938 to Zbaszyn in Poland. The total number of victims is unknown.

Originating in the Middle Ages, the guilds were recognized by the authorities as organizations of craftsmen, taders, and other groups whose purpose was to facilitate their members in the pursuit of a particulat trade. Membership was bound by certain conditions, one being the status of a free citizen.

Zwangstod/Forced Suicide:
A term denoting a suicide committed under external compulsion.

Zwangsverkauf/compulsory sale:
Following the numerous collective deportations of Jews the property of the Jüdische Religionsverband Hamburg/Jewish Religious Federation Hamburg, i.e. in 1942 the "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland"/"Reich Society of Jews in Germany" had to be compulsorily sold. The buyer, in general the Hanseatic City of Hamburg, represented by the German state governor, had in 1942 for example, 2·4 million RM (Reichsmark) to pay to the community.
When the "Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland"/"Reich Society of Jews in Germany" was, with all its district offices, finally disbanded, the Nazis immediately confiscated the entire property as "staatsfeindlich"/"hostile to the state".

Struan Robertson