Definitions for Commerce
Commerce is the distribution, buying, selling, exchange, and/or
promotion, of an item, substance, service, and/or system.

Production is the design, implementation, manufacture, distribution,
deployment, and/or use, of an item, substance, service, and/or

Enterprise is any activity of production or commerce.

A common carrier is an incorporated entity that relays animate or
inanimate material, or information, from an origin to a destination,
pursuant to terms published by the incorporated entity, according to
the instructions of its customers as constrained by those terms, for a
fee or for free, and barring unintended exceptions, delivering the
material or information to its destination essentially unchanged from
its condition at the origin.  A common carrier by design is available
to the public, and an incorporated entity cannot be construed to be a
common carrier unless it is available to the public.  A common carrier
does not discriminate between different items of information except by
volume of information and handling preferences and requirements.  A
common carrier does not discriminate between different items of
material except by weight and external dimensions, handling
preferences and requirements, and as required by law.

An advertising arena is any program, or portion thereof, which is
available to the general public, and whose content can, for a fee, be
defined in whole or in part by an organization other than that which
supplies the medium to the public.

The Incorporated Entity
An incorporated entity consists initially of a charter, which
enumerates the name, purpose, procedures, and organizational
structure, of an initially fictitious incorporated entity.  The name
includes a base name and a locality extension of a precise form to be
specified by law, and with the extension is unique.  The locality
extension is the type and name of the unit of state corresponding to
the smallest geographic region within which the organization's
activities will be initially confined, or the entire country,
whichever is smaller.  The name (with extension) of the incorporated
entity must be registered with an appropriate agent of the appropriate
unit of state, at no fee, so that name uniqueness can be easily
verified.  If the entity's area of activity changes, it can choose to
update the locality extension to reflect the new area of activity,
changing its base name if its original base name is already in use
with the new locality extension.  When this change occurs, the
previous unit of state of incorporation must be notified, and the new
name registered with the unit of state whose geographic domain
corresponds to the new area of activity.

A group of individuals can then formally organize and legally bind
themselves through a set of contractual agreements each of which names
the individual and the heretofore fictitious entity as the
signatories.  This contract must include the unabridged charter.  Such
individuals become members of the organization after proper signatures
have been recorded.  The first such individual is one named in the
charter as a valid representative of the incorporated entity.  The
contract signed by this individual is signed only by this individual.
Thereafter, the incorporated entity is no longer fictitious, and the
signature of the incorporated entity on further contracts must be
supplied by this or another valid, contractually bound representative.

The members are responsible to an agreed upon degree, in an agreed
upon fashion, and in a court of law, for the activities of the
organization, actions which are typically taken under the appellation
of the organization.  This responsibility cannot be construed to
automatically implicate a member of the organization for
counter-contract or criminal action(s) taken by another member,
whether or not the other member takes the action(s) under the
appellation of the organization.

Charters of incorporated entities are national.  Court cases brought by
or against incorporated entities start as specified in

Contracts in which one party is an incorporated entity can only be
enforced at court in this nation if the incorporated entity has a
charter within this nation.

All members of an incorporated entity, as listed in the charter, must
be in the identification database described in

The parties to the charter of an incorporated entity must have
absolute control over the internal affairs of that incorporated
entity.  In particular, some subset of the membership (possibly equal
to the full membership), including anyone with an ownership share,
designated in the current charter of record as directors, and with
vote-weights specified for each and directly proportional to ownership
share, must have the authority to issue any lawful directive (which
they will have agreed upon by some mechanism of their own design)
consistent with the charter when votes for less votes against exceeds
50% of the sum of the vote-weights of the directors, or a more easily
attained threshold as specified in the charter.  Each director must
be able to vote fractionally, casting only a portion of his
vote-weight for or against, but cannot cast some of his vote-weight
for and some against in a single vote.

The charter, and the identities of all members with a current share of
ownership, revealing particularly the proportion of ownership of each,
must be publicly available.

If an agent of an incorporated entity with a charter in this nation
commits an act anywhere in the world that is unlawful throughout this
nation, on behalf of that incorporated entity and with the
foreknowledge or direction of any member of that incorporated entity,
both the incorporated entity and the agent must be prosecuted in this
nation.  If the incorporated entity fails to satisfy a lawfully
ordered penalty, then it cannot enforce in any court of this nation
any contract, though others can still enforce at court contracts they
have with this incorporated entity.  The incorporated entity can be
ordered to end its affiliation with the agent, and can be ordered to
eject without possibility of readmission any member or employee who
directed the act.

Incorporated entities are not as such entitled to the rights of
individuals, and cannot be considered to be individuals or as though
individuals in law.

Incorporated entities must be wholly owned by their employees.

No law can require that a particular number, proportion, or class of
employees of an incorporated entity be shareholders in that
incorporated entity.

An employee of an incorporated entity is an individual who annually
performs at least 1000 hours of work on behalf of that incorporated
entity, and is recognized formally by that incorporated entity as an

No individual can be an employee of more than one incorporated entity
operating in the same domain, as defined in .

Incorporated entities that operate in the same domain cannot merge.
The state cannot otherwise impede the merger of incorporated entities,
and under no circumstances can an incorporated entity be compelled by
the state to divide into multiple incorporated entities.

No contract can promise to an individual a share of ownership in an
incorporated entity of which he is not currently an employee, if the
individual currently has a share of ownership in another incorporated
entity that operates in a domain in which the former incorporated
entity operates.

No law can limit the properties owned by an individual or incorporated
entity based on the variety or extent of those properties, or act on
that basis, though the purchase of particular land properties can be
temporarily embargoed as specified in this document.

No employment contract can specify consequences for non-criminal
conduct of an employee while that employee is off the premises of the
employer, not drawing a wage, and not displaying paraphernalia
specifically identifying the employee as acting in an official
capacity on behalf of the employer.  An employee contract can require
an employee to divulge the contents of a conversation only if that
conversation revealed an intent to take action directly harmful to the
incorporated entity.

The Contract
A contract is a document the terms of which are enforceable at state
court, signed by two or more parties, wherein the parties agree to
specified conduct for a specified interval and circumstance.  Each
party may be an individual or an incorporated entity with specified
signatories who are authorities of the incorporated entity.

Except as specified in this document, a unilateral document, signed by
a single party (for example, simple permission), cannot be construed
as a contract.

Any portion of a contract in which the signatory abdicates any of the
organic or metabolic rights enumerated in this document is void.

No contract can explicitly bind an individual in perpetuity.

Any portion of a contract that specifies law-breaking is void.

The penalty for breach of contract is as specified by the contract,
and no penalty not specified by the contract can be levied in any

Except as agreed to in binding contract, the resignation of any
employee, including state soldiers, must be accepted without delay or
legal ramification.

Advertising amounts to an implicit contract the advertiser enters with
any purchaser of the product advertised.  The act of purchase is an
implicit signature, and may involve agreement to constraints with
respect to the product, which must be provided to the buyer in written
or electronic form before he is allowed to purchase.

Any contract between a manufacturer and a retailer, in which a retail
point-of-sale not majority-owned by a manufacturer is bound to price
or advertising restrictions, or in which constraints are placed on the
stocking, display, or sale, of any product, are void.

A contract with the public can be entered by a party.  The terms of
the published contract bind the party, and violation of these terms is
prosecuted by the state, and penalized according to the terms of the
contract, entirely at the expense of the party.  The public is in no
way constrained by the contract, and the state serves as signatory on
behalf of the public.  Proceeds from penalties levied serve to relieve
the general tax burden, as do the proceeds from any punitive fine.

A candidate for public office can enter a contract with the public,
wherein he guarantees voting positions on any number of questions, if
and whenever those questions are put to votes.  He must prioritize his
positions, so that his voting position on a compound question is clear
even if he must vote counter to one position guarantee in order to
adhere to another.

Each formal contract with named signatory parties must specify a
minimum monetary settlement equivalent (MMSE), identifying which party
pays and which party receives the settlement.  The recipient is the
beneficiary.  Payment of the MMSE dissolves all contractual
obligations except for non-disclosure agreements.  A proportion of the
MMSE is paid as general tax revenue.  The proportion is an annually
uniform baseline proportion multiplied by the duration of coverage (in
units of years) desired.  The baseline proportion, determined
annually, cannot more than 1%.

In the case that no MMSE is specified for a non-disclosure clause in a
contract, a proportion of the specified breach penalty is paid as
general tax revenue.  For the purposes of taxation, those penalties
that are incarceration are converted to monetary punition at the rate
of 6 hour's average wages per day of incarceration, and those
penalties that specify punitive labor are converted to monetary
punition at the rate of one hour's average wages per hour of punitive

A contract can specify as punition only monetary fines, punitive
labor, and/or incarceration.

The national unit of state sells uniquely serialized contract tax
certificates which are purchased anonymously in an amount specified by
the purchaser and attached to a particular contract.  Each certificate
identifies the period of time covered by the certificate.  This period
cannot extend more than one year into the future.  The attachment to
a particular contract is performed by the agent of state who sells the
tax certificate, by cryptographically signing a concatenation of the
tax certificate serial identifier and a cryptographic digest of the
contract as provided by the purchaser, producing a receipt.

Enforceability can be perpetuated by timely purchase of additional
contract tax certificates.  A contract tax certificates for a period
of up to one year in the immediate past can be purchased at three
times the cost for a certificate covering future periods of equal

A contract can be enforced at court only if a receipt is produced
proving payment of taxes covering, in an uninterrupted fashion, the
period starting with the initial signing of the contract and
continuing beyond the time when the alleged breach allegedly
transpired.  The full contract must be produced, and its digest must
match the digest contained in the receipt.  For the duration of
litigation of a contract, the tax payment requirement is suspended,
and is due at the conclusion of litigation as ordered by the court.

No law can require or permit an agent of the state to demand the
contents of a contract, for the purposes of determining contract tax
or for any other purpose, except in court proceedings initiated by a
party to the contract, or when the contents of the contract are
declared material to a trial by a court.  In these exceptions, the
contents of the contract are kept in confidence, available only to
those participating in the trial and with a need to know.

Except as otherwise specified in this document or agreed to by all
parties to a contract, timely payment of contract taxes is the sole
responsibility of the party identified as the recipient of the
contract's MMSE.

Except in the case of money, in any transfer of a contract, all
receipts for contract tax certificates purchased by contract parties
past and present must be presented to all new parties to the contract
before the new parties confirm their acceptance of the contract.  In
the case of money, the issuer of the money must publish all receipts
for all contract tax certificates for all outstanding money.

Once per month, the collected revenue from contract taxes must be paid
to those individuals who incurred intellectual property taxes in the
previous month, in precise proportion to the amount of intellectual
property taxes incurred by each over that period.

No party can enter a contract if doing so would obligate that party
such that the party would reasonably be expected to be able to adhere
to the terms of one or more pre-existing contracts to which the party
is already a signatory, or to the terms of the instant contract, but
necessarily or quite probably not both.  The MMSE method of settlement
cannot be considered in evaluating contracts to determine if they

No law can require a party to be or become a party to a
contract, or prohibit a party from, or reward or punish a party for,
being or becoming a party to a contract, or change its manner of
application on that basis, except as specified in this document.

Protection for Intellectual Property and Dignity
WARNING: this section (and the institution of ``intellectual
property'') is grossly obsolete.  It is to be replaced with a bid
system described in the to-do list.  Patents and copyrights no longer
exist in this implementation of an Innovist legal system.  Trademarks
are certainly fixtures, however.


Within this section, "public" means available on an anonymous basis.

The state works to facilitate to creators legally binding guarantees
that they can reap financial rewards from their creations.  To this
end, five registries are maintained: an invention registry, according
to which novel techniques are protected; a formulation registry,
according to which particular assemblages of techniques are protected;
a layout registry, according to which particular visual, tactile/
ergonomic, or auditory layouts are protected; a verbalization
registry, according to which particular encapsulable creative
instantiations are protected; and a trade and service mark registry,
according to which marketing names and symbols are protected.

All five registries operate on a first-come-first-served basis, but
all five also allow for demonstration of prior invention/use.  Except
for trademarks, in the case that prior invention/use is proved, either
summarily or in court, the ownership of the intellectual property is
assigned to he who has proved prior invention/use, but the previously
registered owner can continue to use and sell the intellectual
property without fee or curtailment.  Trademarks are strictly

Invention protection is not domain-specific.  That is, rights to an
invention initially granted for use in one industry covers use of the
technique in any industry.

An invention is protected only from uses which negatively impact the
potential for use-based revenue of the inventor.  Thus, discussion and
description of the invention, and use of the invention for a purpose
which does not generate financial revenue (research and
experimentation, hobbyist or recreational use, etc.) require neither
permission nor payment of a fee.  Other use of the invention does
require permission (which the inventor can, of course, grant on a
blanket basis at his discretion).

If invention law is invoked to protect an invention, a creator agrees
to license the invention on demand without discretion.  He cannot
withhold licensing for any reason.  Furthermore, the state specifies a
maximum fee schedule specific to the particular invention, and the
inventor cannot demand a fee beyond the upper bounds specified
therein.  Only unit fees can be levied; no initiation fee is
allowed.  The state can base the maximum fee only on the expected
market potential of the invention, and is required to increase the fee
upper bound if the market demonstrates substantial willingness to pay
the current maximum licensing fee.

In order for an invention to be protected, it has to be substantially
different in its effects of technological, economic, and/or creative
empowerment from those of any invention already registered.  Thus,
incremental variations on a technique which has at any time been
registered (whether or not the protection is still in force), cannot
themselves be registered, and are in fact covered by the original

The entire contents of the invention registry are to be published.
The registry is to be arranged as a logical subject hierarchy, so that
searches can be performed quickly.

A formulation is a particular arrangement of logical functioning
components.  Formulations are protected in the same way as inventions,
except that they are domain-specific.

The protection of a layout can be guaranteed by law on a limited
basis.  A layout is a particular combination of geometric arrangement,
typography, color choice, or other specific patterns of visual,
tactile/ergonomic, and/or auditory arrangement.  In order for a layout
to enjoy protection, it must be sufficiently idiosyncratic that its
protection will not impede the development of the layouts of other
creations. more to the point, the latitude of the protection is narrow
such that only those aspects of the appearance which are sufficiently
idiosyncratic are protected.  In applying for protection for a layout,
its creator must specify exactly those aspects of the layout for which
he is seeking protection.

Licensing of a layout is entirely at the discretion of the owner of
the layout.

Domains are not relevant to verbalizations.  Instead, a verbalization
is protected as a particular expression (playing on any combination of
the human perceptual senses, and interactive or not) of a linguistic,
narrative, or expositional/explanatory character.  This expression may
be in any language, human or otherwise.  The expression, any
substantial portion thereof, and any derivation directly therefrom, is

A work need not be published to enjoy verbalization protection.

It, and portions and derivations thereof, may be licensed entirely at
the discretion of the owner.  Small excerpts (less than 1%, or less
than 1000 words, whichever is less) of the words or images contained
in protected material, and retelling of factual information derived
from protected material, do not require the permission of the owner(s)
or payment of any fees, but do require notification of the owner(s).

Trademarks and servicemarks protect brief linguistic, visual, or
auditory, identifiers used in marketing.  They protect the owner only
from misrepresentation of another's product through use of the trade
or servicemark.  No other protection is provided for marks.  A mark is
protected from deliberate infringement by a substantially similar
mark.  Marks can be either domain-specific or non-specific.

The terms associated with each of the registries are as follows:
 inventions: 15 years, non-renewable
 formulations: 25 years, non-renewable
 layouts: 50 years, indefinitely renewable
 verbalizations: 50 years, indefinitely renewable
 trademarks: 10 years, indefinitely renewable

Each license for use of a work protected in any of the five registries
must identify the licensee, the work at issue uniquely by name,
creator(s), and description, and must enumerate the mode(s) of usage
being licensed.

The ownership of a work rests uniquely with its creator(s).  No
contract can stipulate a transfer, waiver, or agreement to not assert
the rights of creation, herein enumerated.

The right of the creator to demand the perpetual dignity of his
creations (formulations, layouts, and verbalizations) cannot be
infringed, waived, assigned, or abandoned.  By this right, the creator
can prevent the use, sale, and/or display of a version of his creation
constitutionally modified in any way.  Should a court determine that
the creator's claim is viable, the offender is bound to rectify.  If
the offender fails to do so within a period of 14 days, the creator
can use any means available to him to suitably alter or eliminate the
offending item.

The creator of a work (a formulation, a layout, or a verbalization)
furthermore has a perpetual and inviolable right to have his name
appear with his works at his request.

The remainder of this section applies only to verbalizations, and does
not apply to inventions, formulations, layouts, or trademarks.

The owner of a work protected by verbalization rights can offer
licenses for use and replay of that work according to a contract of
his own specification.  Such contract must constrain the licensee to
maintain the confidence of the work at issue to a degree sufficient to
deny to non-licenseholders access to the principal virtues of the

If the assent or intent of all the creator(s) is recorded that such be
done (i.e. a license identifying the public at large as the licensee),
a work that is published by display, broadcast, or dissemination in any
way which precludes identification and contractual binding of the
recipient, is no longer owned.

A work cannot be held that is neither accompanied by a proper
signature by the author[s] identifying the licensee, nor accompanied
by a signature by the author[s] identifying the public at large as the
licensee (an abandonment of ownership), nor associated with a
signature by the author[s] published elsewhere identifying the public
at large as the licensee.

No work is to be considered ever to be in the public domain.  All works
are perpetually within the domain of their creators, except that this
domain is transferred by will or default only upon death of the
current arbiter of the domain.  By default, the domain is assigned in
full to the surviving mentally competent spouse, eldest mentally
competent child, or closest surviving mentally competent relative, in
order of preference.

The improper introduction into a public arena of a work demands
restitution by the offender, when possible, and always results in the
issuance of an announcement (at the expense of the offender) in the
same arena that the introduction was improper.  Specifically, a work
can be assured to have been legitimately introduced to a public arena
only when it includes a notice of abandonment of ownership properly
signed by the creator.  Introduction of a work into a public arena for
purposes of encouraging or realizing financial gain must be
accompanied by a signed notice of abandonment.  The lack of such a
signature does not alone comprise sufficient grounds to argue that a
ownership of a work introduced into a public arena is not abandoned,
or that the work is unlawfully held by a recipient.

Thus, ownership of a verbalization can be abandoned, but authorship

Right of Enterprise
The state cannot restrict enterprise except as set forth in this

Right of Edibles Distribution
The right of distribution of non-psychoactive edible products cannot
be restricted except as justified in avoiding propagation of
destructive lifeforms (parasites, aggressive non-native species, etc.)
and to avert the threat of artificial epidemics brought about through
abuse of antibiotics to which microbes have been shown to develop

Regulation of Psychoactives
A psychoactive is defined as a substance which, when introduced into
the human body in small quantities through ingestion, injection,
inhalation, or contact with and diffusion through skin or membranes,
exerts a non-uniform and direct effect on the organic systems of the
brain through the acceleration, inhibition, or other modulation,
reorganization, or reconfiguration, of chemical synthesis, metabolism,
transport, or binding, or signal conveyance and processing.
Furthermore, the effect of a psychoactive on the brain is not due to
an evolved, specifically targeted responsiveness to naturally occuring
environmental factors or dietary components.

Aside from the obvious relevance of legal guarantees of private
property rights, the planting, picking, harvesting, and consumption of
vegetation with psychoactive properties cannot be regulated by law,
provided the raw product is not chemically modified or artificially
concentrated (except insofar as combustion comprises a chemical
modification), except by the below restriction regarding operation of

An individual under the influence of a psychoactive which impairs
motor coordination or markedly alters judgement must not operate
machinery which can reasonably be expected to physically harm others
if operated incorrectly.  For example, the amount of caffeine in a
regular cup of coffee does not preclude operation of such machinery,
nor does a small quantity of alcohol, nor does a small dose of
amphetamine, though any of these substances in larger quantities
preclude safe and legal operation of such machinery.

Except for the above restriction regarding operation of machinery, no
law can be empowered that forbids or regulates the acceptable settings
wherein naturally occuring psychoactives can be consumed by simple
ingestion.  Consumption by combustion of naturally occuring
psychoactives is similarly exempt from interference, except that an
individual who is not an owner or tenant of the space where he is, and
who does not have the permission of the tenant or, if there is no
tenant, owner of the space where he is, must refrain from smoking when
asked to by another individual with whom he shares an enclosed space,
or when he is asked to refrain by someone inside an enclosed public
area when he is within 10 feet of the entrance to the enclosed public
area, or when a sign on the interior wall of an enclosed space forbids

Conventional breeding and hybridization, of the type which does not
require any expertise with or technologies of molecular biology,
cannot be construed as chemical modification or artificial

The remainder of this section applies only to synthetic, chemically
processed, or artificially concentrated psychoactives, and to sale,
purchase, distribution beyond personal acquaintances, and distribution
to non-adults, of any psychoactive.

Within constraints outlined below, psychoactives can be purchased only
by adults and consumed by anyone on private property with the property
owner's or tenant's consent; additionally a non-adult must have the
permission of at least one of his guardians to take a synthetic

Four classes of psychoactives are hereby established: mild, moderate,
strong, and extreme, according to the degree to which a nominal dose
has been shown to impair the judgement of the user such that the
rights of others are likely to be jeopardized.  A psychoactive must
belong to only one class.

In typical doses, mild psychoactives exert no significant influence on
thought processes, neither markedly inhibiting activity nor markedly
stimulating it.  They do not result in a marked impairment of
judgement, nor any significant impairment of dexterity and
coordination.  Nicotine and caffeine are hereby immutably classified
as mild.

In typical doses, moderate psychoactives are not psychotomimetic, do
not dramatically stimulate physical activity, and do not dramatically
increase stamina.  Ethanol, opiates, tetrahydrocannabinol, and
barbituates are hereby immutably classified as moderate.

In typical doses, strong psychoactives may be psychotomimetic, may
dramatically stimulate physical activity, may dramatically increase
stamina, and may produce in the user an apparent imperviousness to
pain.  A strong psychoactive must be either a psychotomimetic or an
activity stimulant, stamina extender, or pain effacer, but cannot be
both.  Serotonergic hallucinogens, amphetamines, amphetamine-analogue
hallucinogens, and cocaine analogues are hereby immutably classified
as strong.

In typical doses, extreme psychoactives are both psychotomimetic and
activity stimulants, stamina extenders, or pain effacers.
Phencyclidines are hereby immutably classified as extreme.

It is the responsibility of the state to enforce restriction of
consumption and experience of moderate, strong, and extreme
psychoactives to licensed users or exclusively to controlled
environments, as follows.

Parlors are licensed by the state and, above and beyond the normal
responsibilities of a point of psychoactives distribution, are
required to restrict the movement of the client to a safe and
controlled environment, and must not allow the client to leave the
controlled environment without first verifying that the client is
sufficiently sober regarding both judgement and motor skills.  Parlors
are only accessible to adults, and must be tended by strictly sober

Moderate and strong psychoactives must first be sampled in a parlor,
and depending on the reaction of the individual (lack of destructive
conduct, and the individual's performance on a battery of
computer-administered tests while under the full influence of the
substance, which tests only to verify the individual's continued
respect for the rights of others), a license for private purchase and
use is granted.

An individual who gives an unlicensed individual a moderate or strong
psychoactive shares responsibility and liability for the actions of
the unlicensed individual while said individual is under the influence
of the psychoactive.

Police can use non-invasive detection technology during any arrest for
a biological or destructive crime, in order to detect and identify a
psychoactive drug in the system of the arrested individual.  The
arrested individual must be informed of the identities of any drugs
detected.  Only at the request of the individual being arrested, an
invasive tissue sample must be taken for detailed laboratory
confirmation of any field finding of psychoactive influence.

If an individual is found to be under the influence of a moderate,
strong, or extreme psychoactive at the time he commits a biological or
destructive crime, his license to buy that psychoactive is suspended
for a year, and he is forbidden to use the psychoactive identified in
said license for that year.  If the psychoactive is strong or extreme,
the individual's license to purchase any strong or extreme
psychoactive is suspended for one year, and he is forbidden to use any
strong or extreme psychoactive for that period.  Any psychoactive
prescribed by a trained medical professional according to the accepted
medical guidelines for therapy is exempt from any such suspension of
the right to purchase and use a psychoactive or class thereof.  In
order for a suspended license to be reinstated, the individual must
successfully complete a state-approved remedial program.

No law can restrict enterprise in psychoactives beyond the
restrictions laid out in this document.

Employees of the state must not be under the metabolic influence of a
psychoactive drug other than a mild psychoactive, while working,
except as formally authorized by a controlling official according to

Violation of the terms of this section is a minor crime, unless a
non-adult is involved, in which case it is a serious crime.
Violations of the terms of this section cannot be construed to be
biological or destructive crimes.

On Advertising
Any advertising, whether or not in a public advertising arena, must
clearly identify the legal owners (by name of incorporation) of the
means of enterprise.

The Monopoly
For the purposes of this section, a domain is a class of products or
services delineated as follows.

Two products or services are in the same domain if the functions for
which the two products or services are suited by design or intent
substantially overlap, and in different domains if those functions do
not substantially overlap.

Differences in particular brand or trademark, or trivial differences
in variety, or differences in particular manner or quality of
performance in a service, cannot in and of themselves be construed to
indicate a distinction of domain.  Differences in suitability for
animals, humans, inanimate material, bulk quantities, packaged small
quantity, manufacture, distribution, retail sales, etc., constitute
differences of domain.

No individual or incorporated entity can enter contracts that secure
in advance delivery of more than 33% of one month's national service or
production capacity for a domain, provided that an individual or
incorporated entity's right to purchase products outright is

No incorporated entity can enter a contract with another incorporated
entity that binds or concerns enterprise in a domain in which both
incorporated entities engage in enterprise.

No individual or incorporated entity can enter a contract whose terms
restrict the prices it charges parties not signatory to that
contract, or the manner in which it accepts or rejects customers, or
the selection and characteristics of the products or services it
offers, provided that this restriction has no bearing on contracts
between incorporated entities and employees thereof.

A staple infrastructure service is a service with a fixed physical
distribution and/or service location, infrastructure, or fleet, and
such that the service cannot be provided except where this
infrastructure operates.

A staple product is a product supplied via a staple infrastructure

A monopoly is an economic circumstance in which a single party has
control of the entire supply of a domain.  For the purposes of this
section, the domain must be one of staple products or services, as
elaborated herein.

For monopoly restrictions as enumerated in this section to apply to a
party, the party must either be the state, or be doing business for a
fee and be either an incorporated entity, or an individual doing
business with members of the public beyond those with whom the
individual has a pre-existing acquaintance.

An incorporated entity is a substantial monopoly, and subject to
further constraints as enumerated in this document, if more than 50%
of its gross revenue is from sales and service in domains in which it
has a monopoly.

A party's commerce in a domain in which it has a monopoly is
restricted as elaborated herein, but these restrictions do not apply
to that party's commerce in domains in which it does not have a
monopoly, unless the party is a substantial monopoly or the state.

The state cannot explicitly grant, secure, guarantee, or reward
erection, maintenance, or operation of a monopoly by an individual or
incorporated entity. The state cannot forbid, halt, penalize, or
specially regulate such erection, maintance, or operation, except as
specifically set forth in this document.

Each of the following constitutes at least one distinct domain of
monopoly for the purposes of this document: railway transport services
from point A to point B except when an alternate route of disjoint
ownership and regular transit time (for the same train) not more than
10% longer, from a point C not more than 10 miles from point A to a
point D not more than 10 miles from point B, is available, railway
transit service from a particular station (subways, trolleys, trams,
etc.), airports and access thereto when there is no alternative within
25 miles, seaports and riverports when there is no alternative within
10 miles, waterways and bodies of water that are not freely accessible
without a fee, ferry service between point A and point B when there is
no other ferry service that links a point C within one mile of point A
and a point D within one mile of point B, transportation by water
between point A and point B when there is no other transportation
service that links a point C within ten miles of point A and a point D
within ten miles of point B, roadways administered as though
state-owned, supply depots for a particular staple fuel or oil and
grade thereof (gasoline, diesel, ethanol, methanol, methane, natural
or liquid petroleum gas, fuel oil, staple lubricants, etc.) when the
closest alternative is more than ten miles distant, agricultural
supplies when the nearest alternative is more than 25 miles distant,
supply of a particular type of drug (excluding psychoactives) or
medical product when the nearest alternative is more than ten miles
distant, emergency medical services including emergency ambulance and
emergency surgery, building supply (including construction,
refurbishing, and janitorial supplies) when the nearest alternative is
more than 25 miles distant, hardware and tractor supply and rental
(agricultural, construction, excavation, and logging) when the nearest
alternative is more than 25 miles distant, grocery supply (ignoring
exclusivity of supply of non-staple foodstuffs) when the nearest
alternative is more than ten miles distant, PDDW supply when the
nearest alternative is more than 25 miles distant, use of a shooting
range that charges a per-visit or per-time-unit usage fee when the
nearest alternative is more than 25 miles distant, commercial radio
broadcast in which more than 10% of residents within the primary
contour are within the primary contour only of the instant channel
site within the band of that site, wireless duplex communications
infrastructure for access to a particular network via a particular
transponder when more than 10% of residents within the area served by
the transponder are not within the area served by any other
transponder that provides access to that network with a similar or
greater quality of connectivity, any facility that sells state-owned
products to the public, and any state-owned facility or operation that
provides services to the public.

The following are usually, though not inherently, monopolies: fixed
water distribution infrastructure, fixed steam distribution
infrastructure, fixed electrical power distribution infrastructure,
wired broadcast communications infrastructure, fixed gas (natural gas,
propane, etc.) distribution infrastructure, and sewage and drainage

The following can be, though are often not, monopolies: duplex
communications infrastructure for a particular network (wired or
wireless) servicing a particular location, roadway vehicular
mass transportation service (bus or trolley) when an alternative
point of pickup or dropoff is more than 500 feet distant, roadway
emergency service (principally, towing and flatbedding, which are
separate domains) for a particular location, heating fuel delivery for
a particular type and grade of fuel and location, postal or package
pickup/shipping/delivery services for a particular location, and
garbage pickup for a particular location.

The following cannot ever be considered staples or monopolies for the
purposes of this document: building services (including construction,
refurbushing and restoration, and janitorial services), equipment
rental providers except as specified above, repair service providers
(for vehicles, electronics, and other machines and items), retailers
of non-staple items (such as jewelry, furniture, books and other
media, computers, recreational electronics, and vehicles (not
including tractors)), legal and accounting service providers, medical
services except for emergency medical services, technical services
including media production and software engineering, artistic and
advertising services, scientific services, banking services,
insurance, educational services, private security and investigative
services, churches, and any service of similar nature to these.

A monopolizable product or service is a product or service
of which a party can have a monopoly as defined herein.

The provider of a monopolizable product or service must publish and
display a thorough current fee schedule covering all monopolizable
products and services, valid for at least one day subsequent to
publication and display, to which it must strictly adhere.  Such a fee
schedule must be displayed any time the provider is accepting

No term of a contract that a party with a monopoly in a domain
requires a customer for that domain to enter can bind the customer in
any manner other than payment, upon or before delivery or performance,
in an amount clearly stated and precisely equal to that specified by
the published and displayed fee schedule applicable at the time of
signing, and if applicable, return of rented equipment in
substantially the same condition it was in when first transferred into
the custody of the customer.

In the manner in which it can enter contracts to provide a
monopolizable product or service, the provider of that product or
service is restricted as though it actually has a monopoly on that
product or service, and is restricted in the formation and entrance of
the contract (but, except as specified herein, in other matters only
if it has an actual monopoly as defined herein) particularly as set
forth in this section and in

Upon the request of a rejected customer, the provider of a staple
product or service must supply a receipt of rejection to it, with
which it can prove the time and place of rejection.  The receipt must
also specify the terms under which the customer will be accepted; in
particular, in cases in which the customer is rejected based on the
quantity of a particular product or service it desires, the receipt
must specify the quantity of that product or service which the
supplier is willing and able to supply.

If no member - of a set of providers of a staple product or service
who, taken together (using any one of them as a hub for the purposes
of radius constraint when applicable), constitute a monopoly - agrees
to supply a product or service to a particular customer, then that
customer is empowered to apportion its order for the product or
service to one, a subset, or all of the providers, who then must, to
the best of their ability, provide the product or service to the
customer for a fee as dictated by the current fee schedule of each.

However, if the quantity or nature of the particular product or
service ordered from a particular supplier by the rejected customer is
such that the rejected customer cannot be supplied or serviced without
causing a failure to perform according to standing contracts with
accepted customers, then the rejected customer cannot compel that
supplier to supply it with the quantity of the product or service at

Commerce in Weapons
For an item to be considered a PDDW for the purposes of this document,
its fabrication must be practical only with the assistance of machine
tools, high power presses or swages, electrical circuits, and/or
industrial chemicals.  No weapon that can be constructed without the
assistance of such equipment can be construed to be a PDDW regulated
by this section.  For the purposes of this section, a PDDW must
readily and reliably enable the killing of a human being at a distance
of ten meters.  Knives and archery equipment cannot be construed as

A firearm is a device which propels a projectile, either by the
exertion of pressure from the combustion or other expansion of a
propellant constrained within a chamber, or by electromagnetic or
electrostatic action.  If and only if a firearm is readily capable of
propelling a projectile with a kinetic energy of 40 joules or greater,
at a peak speed of 100 meters/second or greater, it is a PDDW for the
purposes of this section, except as exempted above.  Any firearm
cartridge or bullet readily usable in a PDDW is a PDDW item for the
purposes of this section.

No restrictions can be placed on the features and characteristics of a
PDDW except those set forth in .  In
particular, except as enumerated in this section, no constraints can
be placed on the bore, muzzle velocity, bullet construction and
composition, action and rate of fire, cartridge capacity, grip and
ergonomic characteristics, sighting devices and accuracy, attached
bayonet, grenade launcher, appearance, technology, or dimensions of a

PDDW manufacturers are required to provide the state with forensic
tracking data when feasible.  The manufacturer of any firearm with a
rifled barrel must provide the state with a measurement of each
barrel's signature as determined from a test firing, along with a
description of the device.  A manufacturer of firearms or firearm
components must stamp or otherwise record a unique identifier on each
receiver and barrel, in a tamper-resistant manner.  A serialized
unique alphanumeric identifier must be associated with the smallest
unit of retail sale of expendables (principally, ammunition).  This
identifier must be legibly written in a tamper-resistant manner, with
ink, paint, dye, or by other means, on any projectile weighing more
than 16 grams.  The identifier must be stamped, engraved, or otherwise
recorded, in a tamper-resistant manner, on the shell case, when the
ammunition includes cases.  When the ammunition is caseless, the
identifier must by legibly written, in a tamper-resistant manner, with
ink, paint, dye, or by other means, on the propellant portion of the
ammunition.  A unique signature chemistry, signature object, or other
tamper-resistant marker, must be associated with each unique
identifier, and must be embedded within the body of each bullet, slug,
shot ball, or other projectile, either mixed with ballasting material,
or under a jacket, or in a fully contained cavity possibly mixed with
an incendiary or other compound, or otherwise contained within the
projectile, except that any unjacketed projectile consisting of a
monolith of metal as hard as or harder than copper or bronze, is
exempted from the requirement of internal signature marking, but must
instead bear external tamper-resistant chemical staining or other
treatment (particularly including the portion of the projectile that
is concealed from view when the projectile is seated in a cartridge
case or bonded to a propellant load), from which a forensic signature
can be determined, which marking must survive ordinary firing but need
not survive a deliberate attack with abrasion, heat, chemical
corrosion, or other disfiguring techniques.  Any signature marker must
be readily readable/measurable by a well-equipped forensics lab,
perhaps through the use of specialized equipment.  Each manufacturer
of such signature markers must supply the state with information
necessary and sufficient to determine the manufacturer and serial
number associated with a PDDW item containing those signature markers,
using forensic techniques.  These signature markers must be considered
PDDW items themselves.  Serial identifiers must be used in recording
any transfer of custody of firearms, barrels, receivers, ammunition,
cases, bullets, or any other PDDW item.  The manufacturer of a PDDW
item must maintain an exhaustive database matching forensic
information to serial identifiers.

No law can specify the use of a particular technique of signature
marking, although (with the above exception) a minimum standard of
robustness (in terms of mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses)
can be specified by law.  No such standard can effectively require a
functionally significant degradation in performance or a significant
degradation of price/performance ratio.

In any transfer of custody of a PDDW item (a PDDW, receiver, barrel,
ammunition, bullet, cartridge case, forensic signature substance,
etc.) the giver is required to verify the validity of the buyer's
license before completing the transfer.  In so doing, the seller must
access the license revocation/suspension database anonymously.

Additionally, the buyer must cryptographically sign a transaction
document identifying the PDDW item by description and serial
identifier(s) and the time and place of transaction, confirming the
purchase, and the seller must cryptographically verify the signature.
This act makes the buyer the custodian of record.  The buyer's
signature must be verified using the public key supplied by the buyer
and matching the identity specified in the PDDW license.  This public
key must be certified by a state certificate authority, and the
certificate must be verified either with the seller's copy of the
appropriate public key of the appropriate state certificate authority,
or by retrieving the appropriate public key of the appropriate state
certificate authority.

A transaction document identifies the prior chain of custody, exactly
one buyer, exactly one seller, exactly one date and time of
transaction, and the description (including number/quantity) and
serial identifier of some number of identical PDDW items all of which
have the same serial identifier.

The seller can reveal the contents of the transaction document only
according to the terms specified in , except as
specified in this section; it is assumed that the buyer wishes the
transaction to be held in confidence whether or not he explicitly so
states.  It is the legal responsibility of the seller to archive an
encryption of each transaction document for safekeeping, in at least
one physically separate facility.  The seller must keep a transaction
document until the corresponding PDDW item has been destroyed, or upon
the death, irreversible incapacitation, or disqualification of the
seller as detailed below.  Decryption of stored and archived
transaction documents must be feasible only by the seller and by
whatever agent the seller has designated for transfer of transaction
documents upon death or irreversible incapacitation as detailed below.
In encrypted form, the transaction document must not reveal any
information about the time and place of the transaction, the identity
and characteristics of the PDDW item, or the recipient of the PDDW

Neither a court nor any other organ of the state can demand or accept
the contents of a PDDW item transaction document unless the
corresponding PDDW item is believed to have been used in the
commission of a crime, or to have been transferred to an individual
whose PDDW license is suspended or revoked.  In particular, those
contents can only be demanded if a PDDW item forensic signature
determined in a criminal investigation matches one or more PDDW item
forensic signatures in a manufacturer's database.  The state can
submit a forensic signature believed to be associated with the
commission of a crime to any PDDW manufacturer, who must inform the
state of the serial number or numbers associated with any entries in
its forensic database that match the forensic profile.  The chain of
custody is determined based on the candidate serial identifer(s),
sequentially, beginning with the manufacturer.  Any such demand must
identify the desired transaction document with a single serial
identifier, and no further information.  The contents can only be
accepted if they were lawfully demanded, or if a serial identifier or
set thereof, identified as required to render demand legitimate, is
published in an anonymously accessible forum of automated
distribution, or if a license is suspended or revoked, and a citizen
volunteers a decrypted transaction document for a matching PDDW item.

The state must electronically announce all suspensions and revocations
of PDDW licenses, and the serial identifiers of all PDDW items used in
crimes, such that the public at large is alerted in a timely manner.
All such announcements must include the nature, time, and place, of
the crime which prompted the announcement.  All individuals who have
sold a PDDW item must examine all their transaction documents at least
once a month, and supply the state with decryptions of all documents
for transactions which involve the transfer of a PDDW item to an
individual whose PDDW license is suspended or revoked, or the transfer
of a PDDW item which has been used in a crime.  The state must destroy
any record of the unencrypted contents of PDDW item transaction
documents within three months of obtaining them.

Upon the death, irreversible mental incapacitation, or
disqualification from ownership of a PDDW, of an individual who has
sold one or more PDDW items, each transaction record must be delivered
in readable form by a designated agent to the most recent prior
custodian who is either an individual still alive and mentally
capable, or a still-active incorporated entity, except that if a
vigilant search for such a prior custodian fails to locate any, or
reveals that none are still extant and qualified, then the designated
agent becomes the new custodian of that transaction record, and must
submit to the state the serial identifiers contained in that
transaction record, in documents he has cryptographically signed.

In order that the actions described in the previous paragraph can be
taken, it is the responsibility of the seller to arrange for the
accessibility of his record database by designating and enlisting an
agent capable of decrypting stored and archived transaction records,
and contractually charged with the obligation of seeing to the
transfer of these records as detailed above.  This agent cannot be
part of the state, cannot be an incorporated entity, must be a
resident of the same county as the seller, must not be disqualified
from holding a PDDW license, and must not obtain any of the seller's
transaction records prior to the death or irreversible incapacitation
of the seller.  Except on the occasion that the agent becomes the
custodian of the transaction record as explained in the previous
paragraph, he must not observe or otherwise examine any portion of the
contents of each transaction record except for the pre-transaction
chain of custody recorded therein, and must destroy any transaction
records he obtains in the course of fulfilling his above-described
obligation once he has fulfilled that obligation.  The new custodian
of a transaction record must attend to the same array of
responsibilities that a seller must, including proper off-premises
archiving, and designation and enlistment of an agent capable of
fulfilling the obligations described in this and the previous

The deliberate divulgence of a transaction record contrary to the
terms of this section is a minor crime.

Except where the immediate military dictates of physical national
defense require it, no heavy PDDW can be exported.  In particular, no
weapon designed to disable vehicles (cars, trucks, planes, trains,
boats, etc) or to destroy buildings, or to kill more than one person
at a time, or to kill a person in such a way that the weapon need not
be tended by an operator, and based on explosives, projectiles,
combustion, directed energy (EM or particulate radiation of a nature
and intensity sufficient to injure or kill a healthy full-grown person
through its direct, immediate or eventual effects, except that
potential injury to eyes cannot be considered), or toxins, must not be
exported except under the above-described exceptional circumstance.

Chemical Tracking
Bulk custody transfer information for all substances which are
already, or can be easily and stealthily manufactured into, explosives
(including explosion by nuclear fission or fusion), toxins, or
synthetic psychoactives, is to be provided to the state at the time
the transfer takes place.  No non-psychoactive food can be so
categorized.  The state must not require the report of purchases in
quantities that do not present a credible threat; the quantity
threshold is to take into account the density of outlets, so that the
thresholds in urban centers are substantially lower than those in
rural areas.

Computer Non-criticality
Any device marked by physical safety ramifications for individuals
other than the informed operator(s) and, if applicable, informed staff
and/or passenger(s), and not principally known as a computer must,
upon failure of an embedded computer, exhibit a non-catastrophic
fallback behavior through mechanical or macroelectrical means, usually
permitting safe immobilization/neutralization.  Primary examples are
automobiles, airplanes, trains, traffic lights, and any system where
hazardous (toxic, caustic, explosive, extremely hot or cold, extremely
high or low pressure, infectious, or radioactive) substances or
fast-moving, violent, or destructive mechanics (turbines, flywheels,
pile drivers, etc.) are handled under computer control.

On Stock
Stock is a proportion of ownership of, control over, and
responsibility for, an incorporated entity, and can be held only by
individual employees of that incorporated entity.

No law can restrict the informative basis upon which an individual
buys or sells stock.