Common Areas and Interests:: On Weapons of Mass Destruction ------------------------------ For the purposes of this section, a weapon is a device designed to facilitate killing or harming of humans under the control of an operator or operators, or autonomously through advance configuration by an operator or operators. For the purposes of this section, a chemical weapon is a weapon which by the action of chemical agents causes the death or lasting serious injury of exposed humans, and a chemical agent is a chemical with no recognized industrial application, which causes death or lasting serious injury when humans inhale it in aerosol or vapor at or below 1 gram-minute per cubic meter, or are dermally exposed to it in liquid at or below 10 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. A chemical agent can be synthesized either through conventional industrial chemistry, through synthesis and excretion by a microorganism, or through any process of decay or metabolism of a microorganism and its constituent substances. For the purposes of this section, a biological weapon is a weapon which by the action of living, contagious microbial agents causes the death or lasting serious injury of exposed humans. A living, contagious microbial agent is a microbe that causes the death or lasting serious injury of exposed humans, is self-reproducing, and can be transmitted to an uninfected human through dermal contact with, inhalation of, or ingestion of, the exhaled air, saliva or sputum, or symptomatic dermal discharges, of an infected individual. No one in the nation can engage in commerce in chemical or biological weapons or agents, except that the state, or private individuals and entities under contract and as directed by the state, can produce, store, and transfer to the state, small quantities of agents for the purpose of developing defensive measures and technologies. For the purposes of this section, a nuclear bomb is a device in which energy is liberated by the alteration of atomic nuclei in a chain reaction. Only the state can own an operable nuclear bomb, Only agents of the state military in their official capacities can be in custody of an operable nuclear bomb. Nuclear bomb component fabrication, and nuclear bomb assembly, can be performed only under specific license granted by the military as directed by the national legislature. Final assembly of nuclear bombs must be conducted at a state military facility. Nuclear bombs can under no circumstances be delivered into the custody or control of any agent outside the state military of this nation. On Ecological Devastation ------------------------- The justices of the court of the smallest unit of state whose scope fully contains the property at issue, can find by a 62.5% vote weight that the planned or proceeding use to which a private landowner is putting his property results in gross ecological damage, thereby immediately forbidding, halting, and/or altering the use. The expert testimony of a full-time researcher qualified specifically in the relevant areas of ecology must be included, explicitly and unreservedly supporting the action of the justices. The ecological damage must be such that a recovery in large part of the ecosystem at issue cannot be expected for at least 50 years. An agency is created which is charged with the task of maintaining the ecological integrity of the environment, domestically, and when foreign ecosystems substantially impact the domestic one, on a global level. This agency must be endowed with sufficient manpower, legal authority, equipment, and military support, to discharge its critical duty. Any employee of the state found to have willfully committed or fomented criminal ecological damage must (minimally) be fired and cannot thereafter be an employee of the state. State Involvement in Medicine ----------------------------- Medicine and surgery cannot be regulated except for the management, treatment, and prophylaxis of infectious diseases, and regulation of psychoactives as enumerated elsewhere in this document. In general, state health protection activities must not extend beyond study, management, treatment, and prophylaxis of communicable diseases and illnesses. Direct Citizen Driven Public Development ---------------------------------------- Any citizen can open contract negotiations by crafting a contract and submitting it with an initial contribution of at least a day's average wage for entry into a database of contracts under negotiation. The detailed description of the contract is published, with an expiration date and fulfillment interval specified. Citizens can contribute money to the fund, and until a contractor is enlisted, can withdraw the money they put in with no gain or loss. Before any contractor can enter the contract, the citizens must elect a fulfillment judge, using the normal voting procedure for filling a fixed number of offices. The identity of this judge is published the moment he is elected. At least one month must pass after publication of the contract before any contractor can enter the contract. During this month, citizen's votes for and against the contract must be accepted. If more than 33% of votes cast are cast against, the contract is cancelled. During the one month voting period, the justices of the court of the unit of state whose scope is the smallest that fully contains the project described by the contract can cancel the contract by a unanimous vote, but they must publish a document detailing how the project conflicts with the public interest. A cancellation of the contract by the court can be bindingly reversed by a vote supporting the contract by 62.5% of voters who are eligible to elect justices to the court at issue. If the expiration date arrives before a contractor enters the contract, or if the contract is cancelled, each contribution is returned to the individual from whom it came, and the contract is removed from the negotiation database. A particular candidate contractor can submit multiple proposals for how it would satisfy the contract. Each proposal is potentially binding: only one proposal will be chosen, of all proposals submitted by all contractors, but the contractor that submitted the proposal that is chosen, is contractually bound to actually perform as proposed. Private individuals can register a guarantee that land property needed for the construction, will be sold to the community at a stated price. Before a contractor proposal is approved, this offer can be amended or withdrawn. A proposal cannot be chosen unless and until such guarantees of land property sale proposal as necessary for fulfillment have been registered by the property owners and confirmed in their viability by the judge. The contractor must ascertain that the land is usable as described in the proposal, as of the time the proposal is submitted, and the judge must ascertain that the land is still usable as such, at the time the proposal is approved. For 1 minute each hour, the contract configuration is frozen so that contractors can agree to a knowable configuration. Before a contractor is approved, it must delineate exactly which properties are actually required for fulfillment, and upon approval only those are bought. Before a proposal is approved, the owner of a land property that is identified in a candidate contractor proposal as required for fulfillment cannot purchase another property that is identified in another proposal for the same contract as necessary for fulfillment. At any time before a proposal is approved, a contractor can submit a proposal, agreeing to enter and complete the contract for a fee equal to the amount of money in the fund at the moment it enters the contract, less the amount of money required to buy the needed private property. The judge has three days after a contractor submits a proposal, and while guarantees for all required properties are secured, to decide whether to to approve the proposal. If it is approved, the fulfillment date is recorded as the date of acceptance plus the fulfillment interval. If the proposal is rejected, the contract remains open. The contractor is bound to complete the contract by the fulfillment date. The contractor forfeits a proportion of the fee equal to the delay beyond the fulfillment date divided by the fulfillment interval, or 100%, whichever is less. The forfeited portion is individually returned to the contributors in proportion to their individual contributions. The contractor informs the judge when the contract has been completed. The judge can declare the contract complete, or craft and publish a detailed description of those aspects of the contract that are not considered complete and fulfilled. The contractor must rectify these shortcomings, and inform the judge when the contract is complete. This process can continue for an arbitrary period until twice the fulfillment interval past the date of acceptance. The judge must not to be frivolous, petty, misleading, or otherwise act in bad faith in his treatment of a contractor. The contractor receives the fee less any delay penalties upon completion of the contract. The contractor must pay for all taxes and expenses, including but not limited to the cost of required land property and of environmental recovery and compensation. State-Owned Land and Facilities ------------------------------- Access of all residents to state-owned public areas can be denied only on the basis of a demonstrable immediate threat to the physical safety of others. Eminent Domain -------------- Except as specified in this document, no law can compel the sale, abandonment, destruction. alteration, preservation, or construction, of private property, nor can state licensing be predicated upon such action. The Roadway ----------- 1. Driving by able, mentally competent adults on state-owned roadways is a right predicated only upon agreement to a roadway contract. Any such able, competent adult can obtain, at no cost, a license to drive on state-owned roadways by entering this contract. The terms of this contract are enumerated generally in this section. Granting of this license is predicated solely upon a demonstrated ability to drive a vehicle in accord with the laws of the roadway and the dictates of safety, and with signatory agreement to the terms of the contract. The law cannot predicate driving on state-owned roadways on vehicle registration, subject to that vehicle's homologated or special-cased certification of roadworthiness (roster of envelopes and RATI equipment, detailed below). 2. Sections of roadway with banks not with the same owner, and any section of a road between sections with banks not with the same owner, or between sections which are state-owned, or administered as though state-owned, must be administered as though they are state-owned (all legal provisions applicable to state-owned roads are likewise applicable to roads operated as though they are state-owned), and in particular, the right of access to public vehicular and pedestrian traffic cannot be infringed. A privately owned road whose banks have the same private owner, whose property extends at least 200 feet in either direction beyond the edge of the road, and which connects via intersections to roadways administered as though state-owned (i.e., two or more directions can be chosen at the endpoints without retracing the private road), are exempt from the requirement that they be administered as though state-owned. The owner of a roadway can disclaim liability for damage, accident, and injury resulting from poor upkeep of the roadway through display of a conspicious sign to that effect. 3. All multi-lane or limited-access roadways must be equipped with a remote alert system (RAS) that electronically provides to drivers reports on road conditions, congestion, and accidents. any tampering with this system or deliberate misreporting of any of the roadway attributes reported on by this system, is unlawful. All such roadways must also be rated for maximum and minimum safe speed as a function of road conditions and congestion, and must electronically provide this information to drivers. This system serves as the first input to the determination of the maximum legal and safe speed for a particular segment of roadway, conditions, driver, and vehicle. All the attributes and parameters covered by this paragraph are to be determined exclusively on the basis of sound engineering practice. 4. A driver can hold a license which certifies that his skill level and physical fitness is sufficient for higher safe driving speeds. the level of the driver serves as the second input to the determination of legal and safe driving speed. The level of such a license can be reduced only if the driver is the cause of an accident, or his skill level or physical fitness is reduced. 5. Homologated vehicles are blanket-rated for performance envelope, environmentally noxious emissions envelope, and safety envelope, and the state must conduct brief (less than an hour) tests in which these three envelopes are determined for a non-homologated vehicle, for a fee not to exceed one day's average wages. These envelopes serve as the third and final input to the determination of legal and safe speed. Sufficiently poor showings for any of the three envelopes can cause the vehicle to be declared unfit for use on state-owned roadways. 6. The Remote Alert Transceiver/Interface (RATI) a. For operation on state-owned roadways, a vehicle must be equipped with a RATI whose functionality is described (in part) below. b. Each vehicle is required to have a unique identifier. this identifier must include the identity of the manufacturer, and it is the legal responsibility of each manufacturer to assure that it never turns out two vehicles with the same identifier. c. The RATI must provide, upon request from a law enforcement officer or automated law enforcement system, a cryptographic hash of the identity of the driver, and a similar hash of the identity of the vehicle. this hash function must provide a consistent 1000:1 collision ratio with a random or pseudorandom collision distribution. c. The RATI must furthermore provide the unhash'd identity of the driver and vehicle upon the non-automated (immediate by an actual human) request of a law enforcement officer (whose identity must be revealed in the request). d. If a RATI-equipped vehicle is involved in an impact, and the RATI is still operable, the RATI must immediately begin periodic alert broadcasts of its location and the identity of the vehicle and driver. the identity portion of these broadcasts must be encrypted such that the information they bear is available only to emergency and law enforcement officers. after one minute, the RATI can permit halting of broadcasts. e. When it is on a RAS-equipped roadway, any such vehicle must furthermore broadcast periodic updates of its speed, location, and performance envelope, sufficient for the receiver of these broadcasts to continuously localize the vehicle to a particular lane or lane-change, and a segment of roadway 100 feet long. The vehicle should not identify itself or the driver in such updates. f. The RATI must receive and display the roadway attributes provided to it by the roadway alert system. g. The information recorded and reported to the driver and vehicle owner by the RATI cannot be restricted by law. h. The RAS protocol is to be specifically delineated and mandated by law. the frequencies used by the RAS are to be allocated by law. 7. No aspect of a vehicle's design other than the RATI can be regulated or restricted except as described in paragraph 5. 8. An individual can lose the right to drive on public roadways only if he has been found, through the trial process, to be at fault in an accident. 9. A slower-moving vehicle must, when the roadway attribute system alerts it to an approaching faster-moving vehicle, speed up to an equivalent speed (if legal and mechanically possible) or move into a slower lane (if it is safe to do so). Use of Radio by the State for Operational Coordination ------------------------------------------------------ When employees of the state use radio communications to coordinate domestic law enforcement and emergency response (medical, roadway, fire, etc), cryptographically strong privacy measures can be used only on those portions of the communications which identify specific suspected prepetrators and victims by name, or by other uniquely identifying information (principally, though not exclusively, residential address). Such measures must be used under such circumstances. Rough physical descriptions of suspected perpetrators, identification of the area of activity not uniquely identifying the residence or vehicle of a suspected perpetrator, and a specific description of the activity (form and extent of an accident or emergency, type and details of suspected or confirmed unlawful activity, etc.) must be transmitted, and must be transmitted in unencrypted form. Radio Broadcast --------------- Definitions A license is a document formally vesting authority to operate the machinery of broadcasting in a specified manner, as detailed below. Broadcast is the deliberate generation of radio signals in such a manner that the successful reception of other radio signals by others at a distance of 1000 feet or greater over an arc span of greater than 30 degrees, or greater than 5000 feet over an arc span of greater than 10 degrees, or greater than 20000 feet over any arc span, is rendered impossible or is distinctly hampered or complicated by dint of interference. Furthermore, broadcast does not involve two-way communications wherein two or more parties use similar apparatuses to send and receive. Except when specifically noted, in this section the term "broadcast" refers to either terrestrial or satellite broadcast. A particular broadcast is principally characterized by the configuration and characteristics of the transmitting antenna system (chiefly, its polarization and directionality) and by the power distribution (versus frequency) of the signal introduced to the antenna system. From these fundamental parameters, and detailed knowledge of the relevant terrain, the range of the broadcast is determined. A licensee is the individual or incorporated entity that controls, through ownership or a lease/loan or other contractual arrangement, the machinery of broadcasting used in compliance with a particular license. A licensee must have total, legally documented, and immediate control over the operation and content of broadcasts generated with this machinery. A licensee is responsible for the compliant operation of the machinery, and can be penalized for any non-compliance. A band is a contiguous range of frequencies whose propagational charactistics, permitted encoding and allocation schemes, and usage policy, are alike. A channel is a set of frequencies, often a contiguous range, within a particular band, for which a license is granted. If the channel consists of a non-contiguous set of frequencies, the manner in which the constituent frequencies are occupied can be specified by law, but only to reduce interference. A channel is the granularity of allocation for a band. A cochannel relationship is one in which two channel sites operate in the same channel. An adjacent channel relationship is one in which two channel sites operate in channels that are immediately adjacent to each other. A channel site is a particular transmission apparatus at a particular location configured for transmission with a particular power distribution, directionality, and polarization. A channel site need not be licensed, or transmitting, to be described as a channel site. A contour is a set of lines along the surface of the earth, typically approximating a circumnavigation of a transmitting antenna system, along which the detected signal strength received from a channel site is equal for a given polarization. A particular contour associated with a particular channel site roughly approximates a circumferential boundary, but usually includes regions within the circumference with signal strength less than that at the circumferential boundary, and regions beyond the circumference with signal strength greater than that at the circumferential boundary, which appear in a contour as holes and islands, respectively. The primary region of a channel site is the set of regions within which the transmissions from that channel site can be received successfully, with minimal distracting noise, distortion, or in a digital broadcast system, unrecoverable errors, by a typical, properly configured receiving system. The primary contour of a channel site is the set of boundaries of its primary region. The protected region of a channel site is the set of regions within which no interfering signals are permitted to be introduced that are sufficient to render impossible, even with special technical attention and equipment on the part of the receiving party, reception of the transmissions from that channel site with minimal distracting noise, distortion, or in a digital broadcast system, unrecoverable errors. Channel sites within a particular band can have defined multiple protected regions; specifically, a cochannel region and an adjacent channel region can be defined, with the cochannel region fully containing the adjacent channel region. The protected or cochannel region for a channel site entirely contains the primary region for that channel site. The protected contour of a channel site is the set of boundaries of its protected region. The cochannel contour is the set of boundaries of its cochannel region. The adjacent channel contour is the set of boundaries of its adjacent channel region. The average protected contour radius of a channel site is the average radius of the innermost circumferential boundary of the protected or cochannel contour of that channel site. A channel sample is a particular location which falls within the protected region of a licensed or licensable broadcast channel site for a particular channel. The channel need not be in any way occupied by transmissions detectable or receivable at the particular location for the concept of the channel sample to have meaning at that location and channel. A band sample is a set of channel samples of equal location, spanning the full range of channels within a particular band. A band restriction constrains a band to a particular pattern of licensing restrictions. The simultaneously licensed and licensable channel sites within all of whose protected regions a band sample falls must, taken as a set, be operated or operable under licenses which, taken as a set, satisfy the constraint imposed by the band restriction. A license schedule is an arbitrary combination of half-hours which begin and end on half-hour boundaries, enumerating the times when a license authorizes and requires broadcasting. A timeslot is a contiguous series of such half-hours which is preceded and followed by half-hours not included in the license schedule. A timeslot segment is a half-hour within a particular timeslot. A licensee is required to broadcast for the duration of each timeslot, starting broadcast within +/-60 seconds of the designated start time and ending broadcast within -60/+30 seconds of the designated end time. A protected region overlap is a region in which the cochannel or protected regions of two channel sites with a cochannel relationship overlap, or in which the adjacent channel region of one channel site and the primary region of another channel site with an adjacent channel relationship, overlap. No license can be granted such that a protected region overlap exists involving channel sites with overlapping license schedules. If the license schedules of two licenses are related such that the associated channel sites have a protected region overlap, then any time their license schedules are such that one channel site is active in the timeslot immediately before the other, broadcasting by the inactive channel site should begin with as little delay as possible following deactivation of the other channel site, though a licensee cannot in general be required to do this or be penalized for not doing it. License time is the amount of broadcasting time authorized by a license schedule, used in comparisons or over a particular interval. Band sample time is the license time corresponding to a band sample, and includes all broadcast time both licensed and licensable which is a component of the band sample. A candidate channel site is a channel site that is compliant with all technical requirements for broadcasting, and for at least 30 minutes every two weeks, has no protected region overlaps with simultaneously active channel sites. A candidate license schedule is any license schedule on which a candidate channel site can operate without creating a protected region overlap with a simultaneously active channel site. A content restriction specially constrains the contents of broadcasts performed under the license at issue, typically to non-commercial or various degrees of non-repetitive programming. A non-commercial use restriction to a license signifies that the broadcasts cannot serve as an advertising arena, and broadcast content consisting of appeals or requests for payment or services must exclusively support the operation of facilities and generation of programs in pursuit of the continuation and improvement of broadcast content. No more than 2% of the aggregate broadcast time of such licensees, computed on a yearly basis, can consist of appeals or requests for payment or services. The creation and maintenance of an agency is hereby mandated, whose responsibility is to implement the policy outlined in this section. It is the chief responsiblity of this agency to vigorously and effectively protect licensees from interference to their signals. The agency is furthermore required to grant licenses such that the spectrum comprising bands is used as fully and efficiently as possible within the constraints of existing and deployed technology, though with a view to making spectrum available for use with novel technologies. Particularly, the agency must work to assure that as many licenses are granted as is technically possible and practically feasible. All broadcasters are required to adhere to certain requirements specified generally in this section and more specifically by law. These requirements specify a means whereby a prospective broadcaster with the requisite equipment and resources can easily obtain a license to broadcast from a candidate channel site with a candidate license schedule. Such applications must be processed and prioritized in the order received. No license is prerequisite for broadcasting, but a licensed operator always preempts an unlicensed operator. An operator broadcasting without a license must adhere to the same set of regulations that constrain a licensed operator, except that he need not, and indeed cannot, participate in the schedule coordination system described in this section. Moreover, no content restrictions apply to an unlicensed operator, aside from prohibition of speech that is contrary to law regardless of method of delivery (i.e. by contractual obligation, and as enumerated in
, , , , and ). In the event that an application for a broadcast license would preempt an existing unlicensed broadcaster, the unlicensed broadcaster must be allowed at least 7 days to apply for a license thereby preventing preemption. The responsibility to be aware of the threat of preemption is solely that of the unlicensed broadcaster, although an agent of the broadcast regulatory agency can at his discretion alert the unlicensed broadcaster. A license minimally specifies the identity and technical parameters of the channel site, the license schedule, and any license restrictions. The specification of the type of apparatus acceptable for a particular broadcasting application can address only those technical aspects wherein proper performance is requisite for successful reception, and for the avoidance of interference to other machinery and to other protected radio signals. No law can require that a particular product, or one of an enumerated list of products, or class of products characterized beyond the foregoing, be used for a particular broadcasting application. The content of broadcasts cannot be regulated except as set forth generally or specifically in this document. No more than 25% of the information conveyed in a broadcast channel can be encrypted for access control or privacy, and the encrypted portion must be uncorrelated with the remainder of the channel's contents and unnecessary for enjoyment of the principal virtues of the remainder of the broadcast. , , , , , and contractual obligations, are of immediate and great applicability to the content of broadcasts. All licensed broadcasters can be required to coordinate with other broadcasters and with the state to receive and relay brief emergency messages publicizing dangers of weather, natural disasters, industrial and other artificial disasters, and national security. The state policy implementing this coordination must not require the broadcaster to obtain by his own wherewithal receiving equipment other than that which is required to receive his own transmissions and other transmissions within the band and general encoding scheme within which he operates. At least 20%, but not more than 70%, of the channels in any three-fold frequency range starting with the range 500KHz-1500KHz and continuing to the range 600MHz-1800MHz, must be allocated for terrestrial broadcasting, except within ranges that are peculiarly subject to anomolous and unpredictable propagation (hop) beyond delineated protected contours, wherein no broadcast band can be allocated. Allocation of broadcast bands must strive for maximal contiguity within a range of frequencies of similar inherent bandwidth and propagational characteristics. Bands which are regularly prone to hopping are generally most appropriate for use in two way communications between private individuals, and permission to use such bands for this purpose must be easy to secure by an individual of modest technical knowledge and skill. At least 10%, but not more than 50%, of the channels in any three-fold frequency range starting with the range 1GHz-3GHz and continuing to the range 20GHz-60GHz, must be allocated for satellite broadcasting. An application to broadcast from a candidate channel site, on a candidate license schedule, must promptly receive a probationary license. No fee can be charged for this license. To gain a full license, the probationary licensee is required to adhere without fail to the terms of the license for a period of three months following probationary licensing. Within that period, any avoidable and substantial deviation from scheduling, content, and technical requirements as lawfully imposed herein and in law based hereon, results in the levying of a sentence of punitive labor on the licensee (or on each of the controlling parties of an incorporated licensee), cancellation of the probationary license, and a 3 month moratorium on new license applications by the former licensee. An unavoidable deviation is one which is due to a natural disaster, or one due to the criminal action of someone other than the licensee, and cannot be penalized provided a return to regular operation is accomplished as quickly as possible. When an unavoidable deviation occurs, the probationary period is extended by an amount equal to the interval of non-operation. Probationary licenses cannot be bought, sold, or otherwise transferred. After successful completion of a probationary licensing period, the license is promoted to full (permanent), and can be bought, sold, or otherwise transferred, and exercised as delineated in the terms of the license (but in no other manner). If a credible interference complaint is registered with the agency, verification of proper operation is performed by an agency technician on site. Both the complaint and the verification are to be performed in strictest secrecy. A fee can be charged to defray the cost of verification, with a base of an average week's wage, plus a week's average wages for every full day that the technician is fully occupied with the activities of verification, up to a maximum total fee of 5 week's average wages. If proper operation is verified, the complainant is charged the fee. Else, the operator is charged, and potentially penalized otherwise. Any license obtained through transfer returns to probationary status immmediately upon transfer. Any license held by an incorporated entity returns to probationary status when more than 50% of the directorship vote-weights have changed hands since the last promotion of the license from probationary to full status. Probation is as for a newly granted license, and ends three months after the transfer except as noted above. When multiple applications are received for conflicting licenses, a failure to perform during the probationary period by the applicant whose application was first approved on a probationary basis causes the subsequently received application to be processed without further delay and, with amendment if necessary, and only if the applicant is still interested, granted on a probationary basis. This process continues until a probationary licensee completes the probationary period (at which time, conflicting licenses are cancelled and returned without further processing). A licensee can hold no more than one probationary license at once, except that demotions to probationary status for infractions is the only mechanism whereby a licensee can hold more than one probationary license at once. A license can be amended to reflect a modification in technical configuration. A fee can be charged on the same basis as for a new license, based on the modified configuration. A license can be amended through the abandonment of any portion of the licensed schedule starting and ending on half-hour boundaries. Once the probationary period has been successfully completed for a new license for a channel site for which the licensee already holds a full license, the two licenses are combined into a single full license. A license can be divided into two or more licenses, permitting partial transfer of a license, by dividing its license schedule in some manner but with starting and ending times on half hour boundaries. The default of a probationary licensee to which one of the licenses is transfered results in reversion of the license to the previous licensee, with immediate consolidation into a single full (non-probationary) license. A unified database records and integrates detailed information (particularly, primary and protected regions, and schedules) about all licensed channel sites in the nation. The contents of this database, and suitable access tools, must be published. Each licensee can choose a unique identifier consisting of up to 12 lowercase letters. The licensee for a particular license can choose a unique identifier consisting of up to 12 lowercase letters. Licensee identifiers cannot be altered or recycled. License identifiers can be altered only by a return to a probationary license status for 3 months. The broadcaster is required to announce the unique identifier of the relevant authorizing license immediately after commencing transmissions and immediately before ending transmissions, and additionally at least once for every contiguous hour of the timeslot except the first hour, at roughly regular intervals. Broadcasters operating under full licenses in the same channel, with primary regions which overlap, can agree among each other to trade any portion of their schedules, so that one broadcaster can broadcast during some or all of another broadcaster's schedule, provided the total amount of broadcast time is unchanged for each broadcaster, aggregated over a one month period. Such schedule trades can occur on any time boundary, down to the second, i.e. they are not restricted to the 30 minute boundaries of schedules proper. Broadcasters who desire to trade time must submit the details of the trade to the database system at least 1 week ahead of time, but not more than 6 months ahead of time. The request must be cryptographically signed by both licensees. The database system certifies that the desired trade does not result in unacceptable interference, informs the submitter of the result with a delay of at most one minute, and if certification succeeded, enters the schedule trade information in the database making it available to the public. Channel site handovers not on 30 minute boundaries must be accomplished in less than 10 seconds. The average protected contour radius of a license must be at least one mile. Each terrestrial broadcast band containing frequencies above 54MHz has the following band restrictions (note that the particular selection of channels restricted by a band restriction can vary from location to location, as follows logically from the definitions): At least 50% of band sample time for a location must be restricted to programming of which 25% of the aggregate broadcast time, computed once a month, must be manually generated programming which has not been previously broadcast in any transmission whose primary region overlaps the primary region of the transmissions comprising the broadcast at issue. No more than 50% of band sample time for a location can be broadcast under licenses with average protected contour radii exceeding 30 miles. Each and every terrestrial broadcast band has the following band restrictions: At least 25% of band sample time for a location must be broadcust under licenses that have a non-commercial use restriction. At least 5% of that portion of the band sample time for a location that is broadcast under a commercial license, and 25% of that portion of the band sample time for a location that is broadcast under a non-commercial restricted license, must be restricted to licensees who are individuals who hold a single license, the schedule of which does not exceed 8 hours total for every two week period. At least 20% of the programming these licensees broadcast in a given three month period must have not been previously broadcast by any licensee. No more than one such licensee among those who are members of a particular organization, and whose channel site has greater than 25% overlap of any primary regions of other such licensees of like affiliation, can overtly espouse the views of that organization for more than 10% of aggregate broadcast time over a one month period. At least 20% of the band sample time for a location and 25% of the non-commercial band sample time for a location not already restricted in the previous paragraph, must be restricted to licensees who are individual who hold a single license, the schedule of which does not exceed 40 hours total for every two week period. No more than one such licensee among those who are members of a particular organization, and whose channel site has greater than 25% overlap of any primary regions of other such licensees of like affiliation, can overtly espouse the views of that organization for more than 10% of aggregate broadcast time over a one month period. In at least 50% of the channels in a band, licensees who operate on that channel for at least 126 hours each week (full time licensees) can preempt licensees who operate for less than 126 hours each week. A full-time licensee who preempts a part-time licensee is required to compensate the latter for the amount the latter paid for its license. That concludes the terrestrial broadcast band restrictions subsection. No terrestrial broadcast license can be granted or transferred such that a single licensee is authorized to broadcast in the same band at the same time over two or more channel sites whose primary regions overlap by more than 25% of any of the primary regions. No satellite broadcast license can be granted or transferred such that a single licensee is authorized to broadcast in the same band at the same time from two or more satellites. No licensee can hold satellite broadcasting licenses whose total license time exceeds 10% of band sample time for any satellite broadcasting band. No law can cause the automatic review, or involuntary application for renewal, of a broadcast license in good standing. Substantial misconduct or underperformance on the part of a licensee, involving interference with lawful broadcasts, or repeated and lengthy failure to broadcast program (either no carrier or no program carried) involving at least three incidents within a month, each of at least one hour's duration, or repeated violation of any of the requirements set forth in this section after at least one official warning has been issued for non-compliance within the previous year, results in a return to a probationary license status, or loss of a probationary license. The licensee must be promptly informed of any misconduct or underperformance of which he is accused, and must be promptly informed of a change to probationary status. Only a probationary license can be revoked.