Common Areas and Interests::

On Weapons of Mass Destruction
For the purposes of this section, a weapon is a device designed to
facilitate killing or harming of humans under the control of an
operator or operators, or autonomously through advance configuration
by an operator or operators.

For the purposes of this section, a chemical weapon is a weapon which
by the action of chemical agents causes the death or lasting serious
injury of exposed humans, and a chemical agent is a chemical with no
recognized industrial application, which causes death or lasting
serious injury when humans inhale it in aerosol or vapor at or below 1
gram-minute per cubic meter, or are dermally exposed to it in liquid
at or below 10 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.  A chemical
agent can be synthesized either through conventional industrial
chemistry, through synthesis and excretion by a microorganism, or
through any process of decay or metabolism of a microorganism and its
constituent substances.

For the purposes of this section, a biological weapon is a weapon
which by the action of living, contagious microbial agents causes the
death or lasting serious injury of exposed humans.  A living,
contagious microbial agent is a microbe that causes the death or
lasting serious injury of exposed humans, is self-reproducing, and can
be transmitted to an uninfected human through dermal contact with,
inhalation of, or ingestion of, the exhaled air, saliva or sputum, or
symptomatic dermal discharges, of an infected individual.

No one in the nation can engage in commerce in chemical or biological
weapons or agents, except that the state, or private individuals and
entities under contract and as directed by the state, can produce,
store, and transfer to the state, small quantities of agents for the
purpose of developing defensive measures and technologies.

For the purposes of this section, a nuclear bomb is a device in
which energy is liberated by the alteration of atomic nuclei in a
chain reaction.

Only the state can own an operable nuclear bomb, Only agents of the
state military in their official capacities can be in custody of an
operable nuclear bomb.  Nuclear bomb component fabrication, and
nuclear bomb assembly, can be performed only under specific license
granted by the military as directed by the national legislature.
Final assembly of nuclear bombs must be conducted at a state
military facility.

Nuclear bombs can under no circumstances be delivered into the
custody or control of any agent outside the state military of this

On Ecological Devastation
The justices of the court of the smallest unit of state whose
scope fully contains the property at issue,
can find by a 62.5% vote weight that the planned or proceeding use to
which a private landowner is putting his property results in gross
ecological damage, thereby immediately forbidding, halting, and/or
altering the use.  The expert testimony of a full-time researcher
qualified specifically in the relevant areas of ecology must be
included, explicitly and unreservedly supporting the action of the
justices.  The ecological damage must be such that a recovery in large
part of the ecosystem at issue cannot be expected for at least 50

An agency is created which is charged with the task of maintaining the
ecological integrity of the environment, domestically, and when
foreign ecosystems substantially impact the domestic one, on a global
level.  This agency must be endowed with sufficient manpower, legal
authority, equipment, and military support, to discharge its critical

Any employee of the state found to have willfully committed or
fomented criminal ecological damage must (minimally) be fired and
cannot thereafter be an employee of the state.

State Involvement in Medicine
Medicine and surgery cannot be regulated except for the management,
treatment, and prophylaxis of infectious diseases, and regulation of
psychoactives as enumerated elsewhere in this document.

In general, state health protection activities must not extend beyond
study, management, treatment, and prophylaxis of communicable diseases
and illnesses.

Direct Citizen Driven Public Development
Any citizen can open contract negotiations by crafting a contract and
submitting it with an initial contribution of at least a day's average
wage for entry into a database of contracts under negotiation.

The detailed description of the contract is published, with an
expiration date and fulfillment interval specified.

Citizens can contribute money to the fund, and until a contractor is
enlisted, can withdraw the money they put in with no gain or loss.

Before any contractor can enter the contract, the citizens must elect
a fulfillment judge, using the normal voting procedure for filling a
fixed number of offices.  The identity of this judge is published
the moment he is elected.

At least one month must pass after publication of the contract before
any contractor can enter the contract.  During this month, citizen's
votes for and against the contract must be accepted.  If more than 33%
of votes cast are cast against, the contract is cancelled.

During the one month voting period, the justices of the court of the
unit of state whose scope is the smallest
that fully contains the project described by the contract can cancel
the contract by a unanimous vote, but they must publish a document
detailing how the project conflicts with the public interest.

A cancellation of the contract by the court can be bindingly reversed
by a vote supporting the contract by 62.5% of voters who are eligible
to elect justices to the court at issue.

If the expiration date arrives before a contractor enters the
contract, or if the contract is cancelled, each contribution is
returned to the individual from whom it came, and the contract is
removed from the negotiation database.

A particular candidate contractor can submit multiple proposals for
how it would satisfy the contract.  Each proposal is potentially
binding: only one proposal will be chosen, of all proposals submitted
by all contractors, but the contractor that submitted the proposal
that is chosen, is contractually bound to actually perform as

Private individuals can register a guarantee that land property needed
for the construction, will be sold to the community at a stated price.
Before a contractor proposal is approved, this offer can be amended or

A proposal cannot be chosen unless and until such guarantees of land
property sale proposal as necessary for fulfillment have been
registered by the property owners and confirmed in their viability by
the judge.  The contractor must ascertain that the land is usable as
described in the proposal, as of the time the proposal is submitted,
and the judge must ascertain that the land is still usable as such, at
the time the proposal is approved.

For 1 minute each hour, the contract configuration is frozen so that
contractors can agree to a knowable configuration.

Before a contractor is approved, it must delineate exactly which
properties are actually required for fulfillment, and upon approval
only those are bought.

Before a proposal is approved, the owner of a land property that is
identified in a candidate contractor proposal as required for
fulfillment cannot purchase another property that is identified in
another proposal for the same contract as necessary for fulfillment.

At any time before a proposal is approved, a contractor can submit a
proposal, agreeing to enter and complete the contract for a fee equal
to the amount of money in the fund at the moment it enters the
contract, less the amount of money required to buy the needed private

The judge has three days after a contractor submits a proposal, and
while guarantees for all required properties are secured, to decide
whether to to approve the proposal.  If it is approved, the
fulfillment date is recorded as the date of acceptance plus the
fulfillment interval.  If the proposal is rejected, the contract
remains open.

The contractor is bound to complete the contract by the fulfillment
date.  The contractor forfeits a proportion of the fee equal to the
delay beyond the fulfillment date divided by the fulfillment interval,
or 100%, whichever is less.  The forfeited portion is individually
returned to the contributors in proportion to their individual

The contractor informs the judge when the contract has been completed.
The judge can declare the contract complete, or craft and publish a
detailed description of those aspects of the contract that are not
considered complete and fulfilled.  The contractor must rectify these
shortcomings, and inform the judge when the contract is complete.
This process can continue for an arbitrary period until twice the
fulfillment interval past the date of acceptance.  The judge must not
to be frivolous, petty, misleading, or otherwise act in bad faith in
his treatment of a contractor.

The contractor receives the fee less any delay penalties upon
completion of the contract.

The contractor must pay for all taxes and expenses, including but not
limited to the cost of required land property and of environmental
recovery and compensation.

State-Owned Land and Facilities
Access of all residents to state-owned public areas can be denied only
on the basis of a demonstrable immediate threat to the physical safety
of others.

Eminent Domain
Except as specified in this document, no law can compel the sale,
abandonment, destruction. alteration, preservation, or construction,
of private property, nor can state licensing be predicated upon such

The Roadway

1. Driving by able, mentally competent adults on state-owned roadways
is a right predicated only upon agreement to a roadway contract.  Any
such able, competent adult can obtain, at no cost, a license to drive
on state-owned roadways by entering this contract.  The terms of this
contract are enumerated generally in this section.  Granting of this
license is predicated solely upon a demonstrated ability to drive a
vehicle in accord with the laws of the roadway and the dictates of
safety, and with signatory agreement to the terms of the contract.  The
law cannot predicate driving on state-owned roadways on vehicle
registration, subject to that vehicle's homologated or special-cased
certification of roadworthiness (roster of envelopes and RATI
equipment, detailed below).

2. Sections of roadway with banks not with the same owner, and any
section of a road between sections with banks not with the same owner,
or between sections which are state-owned, or administered as though
state-owned, must be administered as though they are state-owned (all
legal provisions applicable to state-owned roads are likewise
applicable to roads operated as though they are state-owned), and in
particular, the right of access to public vehicular and pedestrian
traffic cannot be infringed.  A privately owned road whose banks have
the same private owner, whose property extends at least 200 feet in
either direction beyond the edge of the road, and which connects via
intersections to roadways administered as though state-owned (i.e.,
two or more directions can be chosen at the endpoints without
retracing the private road), are exempt from the requirement that they
be administered as though state-owned.  The owner of a roadway can
disclaim liability for damage, accident, and injury resulting from
poor upkeep of the roadway through display of a conspicious sign to
that effect.

3. All multi-lane or limited-access roadways must be equipped with a
remote alert system (RAS) that electronically provides to drivers
reports on road conditions, congestion, and accidents.  any tampering
with this system or deliberate misreporting of any of the roadway
attributes reported on by this system, is unlawful.  All such roadways
must also be rated for maximum and minimum safe speed as a function of
road conditions and congestion, and must electronically provide this
information to drivers.  This system serves as the first input to the
determination of the maximum legal and safe speed for a particular
segment of roadway, conditions, driver, and vehicle.  All the
attributes and parameters covered by this paragraph are to be
determined exclusively on the basis of sound engineering practice.

4. A driver can hold a license which certifies that his skill level
and physical fitness is sufficient for higher safe driving speeds.
the level of the driver serves as the second input to the
determination of legal and safe driving speed.  The level of such a
license can be reduced only if the driver is the cause of an accident,
or his skill level or physical fitness is reduced.

5. Homologated vehicles are blanket-rated for performance envelope,
environmentally noxious emissions envelope, and safety envelope, and
the state must conduct brief (less than an hour) tests in which these
three envelopes are determined for a non-homologated vehicle, for a
fee not to exceed one day's average wages.  These envelopes serve as
the third and final input to the determination of legal and safe
speed.  Sufficiently poor showings for any of the three envelopes can
cause the vehicle to be declared unfit for use on state-owned

6. The Remote Alert Transceiver/Interface (RATI)
  a. For operation on state-owned roadways, a vehicle must be
  equipped with a RATI whose functionality is described (in part)
  b. Each vehicle is required to have a unique identifier. this
  identifier must include the identity of the manufacturer, and it is
  the legal responsibility of each manufacturer to assure that it
  never turns out two vehicles with the same identifier.
  c. The RATI must provide, upon request from a law enforcement
  officer or automated law enforcement system, a cryptographic hash of
  the identity of the driver, and a similar hash of the identity of
  the vehicle. this hash function must provide a consistent 1000:1
  collision ratio with a random or pseudorandom collision
  c. The RATI must furthermore provide the unhash'd identity of
  the driver and vehicle upon the non-automated (immediate
  by an actual human) request of a law enforcement officer
  (whose identity must be revealed in the request).
  d. If a RATI-equipped vehicle is involved in an impact, and the RATI
  is still operable, the RATI must immediately begin periodic alert
  broadcasts of its location and the identity of the vehicle and
  driver. the identity portion of these broadcasts must be encrypted
  such that the information they bear is available only to emergency
  and law enforcement officers. after one minute, the RATI can permit
  halting of broadcasts.
  e. When it is on a RAS-equipped roadway, any such vehicle must
  furthermore broadcast periodic updates of its speed, location, and
  performance envelope, sufficient for the receiver of these
  broadcasts to continuously localize the vehicle to a particular lane
  or lane-change, and a segment of roadway 100 feet long.  The vehicle
  should not identify itself or the driver in such updates.
  f. The RATI must receive and display the roadway attributes provided to
  it by the roadway alert system.
  g. The information recorded and reported to the driver and vehicle
  owner by the RATI cannot be restricted by law.
  h. The RAS protocol is to be specifically delineated and mandated
  by law.  the frequencies used by the RAS are to be allocated by

7. No aspect of a vehicle's design other than the RATI can be
regulated or restricted except as described in paragraph 5.

8. An individual can lose the right to drive on public roadways only
if he has been found, through the trial process, to be at fault in an

9. A slower-moving vehicle must, when the roadway attribute system
alerts it to an approaching faster-moving vehicle, speed up to an
equivalent speed (if legal and mechanically possible) or move into a
slower lane (if it is safe to do so).

Use of Radio by the State for Operational Coordination
When employees of the state use radio communications to coordinate
domestic law enforcement and emergency response (medical, roadway,
fire, etc), cryptographically strong privacy measures can be used only
on those portions of the communications which identify specific
suspected prepetrators and victims by name, or by other uniquely
identifying information (principally, though not exclusively,
residential address).  Such measures must be used under such
circumstances.  Rough physical descriptions of suspected perpetrators,
identification of the area of activity not uniquely identifying the
residence or vehicle of a suspected perpetrator, and a specific
description of the activity (form and extent of an accident or
emergency, type and details of suspected or confirmed unlawful
activity, etc.) must be transmitted, and must be transmitted in
unencrypted form.

Radio Broadcast


A license is a document formally vesting authority to operate the
machinery of broadcasting in a specified manner, as detailed below.

Broadcast is the deliberate generation of radio signals in such
a manner that the successful reception of other radio signals by
others at a distance of 1000 feet or greater over an arc span of
greater than 30 degrees, or greater than 5000 feet over an arc span of
greater than 10 degrees, or greater than 20000 feet over any arc span,
is rendered impossible or is distinctly hampered or complicated by
dint of interference.  Furthermore, broadcast does not involve two-way
communications wherein two or more parties use similar apparatuses to
send and receive.  Except when specifically noted, in this section the
term "broadcast" refers to either terrestrial or satellite broadcast.

A particular broadcast is principally characterized by the
configuration and characteristics of the transmitting antenna system
(chiefly, its polarization and directionality) and by the power
distribution (versus frequency) of the signal introduced to the
antenna system.  From these fundamental parameters, and detailed
knowledge of the relevant terrain, the range of the broadcast is

A licensee is the individual or incorporated entity that controls,
through ownership or a lease/loan or other contractual arrangement,
the machinery of broadcasting used in compliance with a particular
license.  A licensee must have total, legally documented, and
immediate control over the operation and content of broadcasts
generated with this machinery.  A licensee is responsible for the
compliant operation of the machinery, and can be penalized for
any non-compliance.

A band is a contiguous range of frequencies whose propagational
charactistics, permitted encoding and allocation schemes, and usage
policy, are alike.

A channel is a set of frequencies, often a contiguous range, within a
particular band, for which a license is granted.  If the channel
consists of a non-contiguous set of frequencies, the manner in which
the constituent frequencies are occupied can be specified by law, but
only to reduce interference.  A channel is the granularity of
allocation for a band.

A cochannel relationship is one in which two channel sites operate in
the same channel.

An adjacent channel relationship is one in which two channel sites
operate in channels that are immediately adjacent to each other.

A channel site is a particular transmission apparatus at a particular
location configured for transmission with a particular power
distribution, directionality, and polarization.  A channel site need
not be licensed, or transmitting, to be described as a channel site.

A contour is a set of lines along the surface of the earth, typically
approximating a circumnavigation of a transmitting antenna system,
along which the detected signal strength received from a channel site
is equal for a given polarization.  A particular contour associated
with a particular channel site roughly approximates a circumferential
boundary, but usually includes regions within the circumference with
signal strength less than that at the circumferential boundary, and
regions beyond the circumference with signal strength greater than
that at the circumferential boundary, which appear in a contour as
holes and islands, respectively.

The primary region of a channel site is the set of regions within
which the transmissions from that channel site can be received
successfully, with minimal distracting noise, distortion, or in a
digital broadcast system, unrecoverable errors, by a typical, properly
configured receiving system.

The primary contour of a channel site is the set of boundaries of its
primary region.

The protected region of a channel site is the set of regions within
which no interfering signals are permitted to be introduced that are
sufficient to render impossible, even with special technical attention
and equipment on the part of the receiving party, reception of the
transmissions from that channel site with minimal distracting noise,
distortion, or in a digital broadcast system, unrecoverable errors.
Channel sites within a particular band can have defined multiple
protected regions; specifically, a cochannel region and an adjacent
channel region can be defined, with the cochannel region fully
containing the adjacent channel region.  The protected or cochannel
region for a channel site entirely contains the primary region for
that channel site.

The protected contour of a channel site is the set of boundaries of
its protected region.  The cochannel contour is the set of boundaries
of its cochannel region.  The adjacent channel contour is the set of
boundaries of its adjacent channel region.

The average protected contour radius of a channel site is the average
radius of the innermost circumferential boundary of the protected or
cochannel contour of that channel site.

A channel sample is a particular location which falls within the
protected region of a licensed or licensable broadcast channel site
for a particular channel.  The channel need not be in any way occupied
by transmissions detectable or receivable at the particular location
for the concept of the channel sample to have meaning at that location
and channel.

A band sample is a set of channel samples of equal location, spanning
the full range of channels within a particular band.

A band restriction constrains a band to a particular pattern of
licensing restrictions.  The simultaneously licensed and licensable
channel sites within all of whose protected regions a band sample
falls must, taken as a set, be operated or operable under licenses
which, taken as a set, satisfy the constraint imposed by the
band restriction.

A license schedule is an arbitrary combination of half-hours which
begin and end on half-hour boundaries, enumerating the times when a
license authorizes and requires broadcasting.  A timeslot is a
contiguous series of such half-hours which is preceded and followed by
half-hours not included in the license schedule.  A timeslot segment
is a half-hour within a particular timeslot.  A licensee is required
to broadcast for the duration of each timeslot, starting broadcast
within +/-60 seconds of the designated start time and ending broadcast
within -60/+30 seconds of the designated end time.

A protected region overlap is a region in which the cochannel or
protected regions of two channel sites with a cochannel relationship
overlap, or in which the adjacent channel region of one channel site
and the primary region of another channel site with an adjacent
channel relationship, overlap.  No license can be granted such that a
protected region overlap exists involving channel sites with
overlapping license schedules.  If the license schedules of two
licenses are related such that the associated channel sites have a
protected region overlap, then any time their license schedules are
such that one channel site is active in the timeslot immediately
before the other, broadcasting by the inactive channel site should
begin with as little delay as possible following deactivation of the
other channel site, though a licensee cannot in general be required to
do this or be penalized for not doing it.

License time is the amount of broadcasting time authorized by a
license schedule, used in comparisons or over a particular interval.

Band sample time is the license time corresponding to a band sample,
and includes all broadcast time both licensed and licensable which is
a component of the band sample.

A candidate channel site is a channel site that is compliant with all
technical requirements for broadcasting, and for at least 30 minutes
every two weeks, has no protected region overlaps with simultaneously
active channel sites.

A candidate license schedule is any license schedule on which a
candidate channel site can operate without creating a protected
region overlap with a simultaneously active channel site.

A content restriction specially constrains the contents of broadcasts
performed under the license at issue, typically to non-commercial or
various degrees of non-repetitive programming.

A non-commercial use restriction to a license signifies that the
broadcasts cannot serve as an advertising arena, and broadcast content
consisting of appeals or requests for payment or services must
exclusively support the operation of facilities and generation of
programs in pursuit of the continuation and improvement of broadcast
content.  No more than 2% of the aggregate broadcast time of such
licensees, computed on a yearly basis, can consist of appeals or
requests for payment or services.

The creation and maintenance of an agency is hereby mandated, whose
responsibility is to implement the policy outlined in this section.
It is the chief responsiblity of this agency to vigorously and
effectively protect licensees from interference to their signals.  The
agency is furthermore required to grant licenses such that the
spectrum comprising bands is used as fully and efficiently as possible
within the constraints of existing and deployed technology, though
with a view to making spectrum available for use with novel
technologies.  Particularly, the agency must work to assure that as
many licenses are granted as is technically possible and practically

All broadcasters are required to adhere to certain requirements
specified generally in this section and more specifically by law.
These requirements specify a means whereby a prospective broadcaster
with the requisite equipment and resources can easily obtain a license
to broadcast from a candidate channel site with a candidate license
schedule.  Such applications must be processed and prioritized in the
order received.

No license is prerequisite for broadcasting, but a licensed operator
always preempts an unlicensed operator.  An operator broadcasting
without a license must adhere to the same set of regulations that
constrain a licensed operator, except that he need not, and indeed
cannot, participate in the schedule coordination system described in
this section.  Moreover, no content restrictions apply to an
unlicensed operator, aside from prohibition of speech that is contrary
to law regardless of method of delivery (i.e. by contractual
obligation, and as enumerated in
, ,
, , and ).

In the event that an application for a broadcast license would preempt
an existing unlicensed broadcaster, the unlicensed broadcaster must be
allowed at least 7 days to apply for a license thereby preventing
preemption.  The responsibility to be aware of the threat of
preemption is solely that of the unlicensed broadcaster, although an
agent of the broadcast regulatory agency can at his discretion alert
the unlicensed broadcaster.

A license minimally specifies the identity and technical parameters of
the channel site, the license schedule, and any license restrictions.

The specification of the type of apparatus acceptable for a particular
broadcasting application can address only those technical aspects
wherein proper performance is requisite for successful reception, and
for the avoidance of interference to other machinery and to other
protected radio signals.  No law can require that a particular
product, or one of an enumerated list of products, or class of
products characterized beyond the foregoing, be used for a particular
broadcasting application.

The content of broadcasts cannot be regulated except as set forth
generally or specifically in this document.

No more than 25% of the information conveyed in a broadcast channel
can be encrypted for access control or privacy, and the encrypted
portion must be uncorrelated with the remainder of the channel's
contents and unnecessary for enjoyment of the principal virtues of the
remainder of the broadcast.

, ,
, , , and contractual
obligations, are of immediate and great applicability to the content
of broadcasts.

All licensed broadcasters can be required to coordinate with other
broadcasters and with the state to receive and relay brief emergency
messages publicizing dangers of weather, natural disasters, industrial
and other artificial disasters, and national security.  The state
policy implementing this coordination must not require the broadcaster
to obtain by his own wherewithal receiving equipment other than that
which is required to receive his own transmissions and other
transmissions within the band and general encoding scheme within which
he operates.

At least 20%, but not more than 70%, of the channels in any three-fold
frequency range starting with the range 500KHz-1500KHz and continuing
to the range 600MHz-1800MHz, must be allocated for terrestrial
broadcasting, except within ranges that are peculiarly subject to
anomolous and unpredictable propagation (hop) beyond delineated
protected contours, wherein no broadcast band can be allocated.
Allocation of broadcast bands must strive for maximal contiguity
within a range of frequencies of similar inherent bandwidth and
propagational characteristics.  Bands which are regularly prone to
hopping are generally most appropriate for use in two way
communications between private individuals, and permission to use such
bands for this purpose must be easy to secure by an individual of
modest technical knowledge and skill.

At least 10%, but not more than 50%, of the channels in any three-fold
frequency range starting with the range 1GHz-3GHz and continuing to
the range 20GHz-60GHz, must be allocated for satellite broadcasting.

An application to broadcast from a candidate channel site, on a
candidate license schedule, must promptly receive a probationary
license.  No fee can be charged for this license.

To gain a full license, the probationary licensee is required to
adhere without fail to the terms of the license for a period of three
months following probationary licensing.  Within that period, any
avoidable and substantial deviation from scheduling, content, and
technical requirements as lawfully imposed herein and in law based
hereon, results in the levying of a sentence of punitive labor on the
licensee (or on each of the controlling parties of an incorporated
licensee), cancellation of the probationary license, and a 3 month
moratorium on new license applications by the former licensee.  An
unavoidable deviation is one which is due to a natural disaster, or
one due to the criminal action of someone other than the licensee, and
cannot be penalized provided a return to regular operation is
accomplished as quickly as possible.  When an unavoidable deviation
occurs, the probationary period is extended by an amount equal to the
interval of non-operation.  Probationary licenses cannot be bought,
sold, or otherwise transferred.

After successful completion of a probationary licensing period, the
license is promoted to full (permanent), and can be bought, sold, or
otherwise transferred, and exercised as delineated in the terms of the
license (but in no other manner).

If a credible interference complaint is registered with the agency,
verification of proper operation is performed by an agency technician
on site.  Both the complaint and the verification are to be performed
in strictest secrecy.  A fee can be charged to defray the cost of
verification, with a base of an average week's wage, plus a week's
average wages for every full day that the technician is fully occupied
with the activities of verification, up to a maximum total fee of 5
week's average wages.  If proper operation is verified, the
complainant is charged the fee.  Else, the operator is charged, and
potentially penalized otherwise.

Any license obtained through transfer returns to probationary status
immmediately upon transfer.  Any license held by an incorporated
entity returns to probationary status when more than 50% of the
directorship vote-weights have changed hands since the last promotion
of the license from probationary to full status.  Probation is as for
a newly granted license, and ends three months after the transfer
except as noted above.

When multiple applications are received for conflicting licenses, a
failure to perform during the probationary period by the applicant
whose application was first approved on a probationary basis causes
the subsequently received application to be processed without further
delay and, with amendment if necessary, and only if the applicant is
still interested, granted on a probationary basis.  This process
continues until a probationary licensee completes the probationary
period (at which time, conflicting licenses are cancelled and returned
without further processing).

A licensee can hold no more than one probationary license at once,
except that demotions to probationary status for infractions is the
only mechanism whereby a licensee can hold more than one probationary
license at once.

A license can be amended to reflect a modification in technical
configuration.  A fee can be charged on the same basis as for a new
license, based on the modified configuration.

A license can be amended through the abandonment of any portion of the
licensed schedule starting and ending on half-hour boundaries.

Once the probationary period has been successfully completed for a new
license for a channel site for which the licensee already holds a full
license, the two licenses are combined into a single full license.

A license can be divided into two or more licenses, permitting partial
transfer of a license, by dividing its license schedule in some manner
but with starting and ending times on half hour boundaries.  The
default of a probationary licensee to which one of the licenses is
transfered results in reversion of the license to the previous
licensee, with immediate consolidation into a single full
(non-probationary) license.

A unified database records and integrates detailed information
(particularly, primary and protected regions, and schedules) about all
licensed channel sites in the nation.  The contents of this database,
and suitable access tools, must be published.  Each licensee can
choose a unique identifier consisting of up to 12 lowercase letters.
The licensee for a particular license can choose a unique identifier
consisting of up to 12 lowercase letters.  Licensee identifiers cannot
be altered or recycled.  License identifiers can be altered only by a
return to a probationary license status for 3 months.

The broadcaster is required to announce the unique identifier of the
relevant authorizing license immediately after commencing
transmissions and immediately before ending transmissions, and
additionally at least once for every contiguous hour of the timeslot
except the first hour, at roughly regular intervals.

Broadcasters operating under full licenses in the same channel, with
primary regions which overlap, can agree among each other to trade any
portion of their schedules, so that one broadcaster can broadcast
during some or all of another broadcaster's schedule, provided the
total amount of broadcast time is unchanged for each broadcaster,
aggregated over a one month period.

Such schedule trades can occur on any time boundary, down to the
second, i.e. they are not restricted to the 30 minute boundaries of
schedules proper.

Broadcasters who desire to trade time must submit the details of the
trade to the database system at least 1 week ahead of time, but not
more than 6 months ahead of time.  The request must be
cryptographically signed by both licensees.  The database system
certifies that the desired trade does not result in unacceptable
interference, informs the submitter of the result with a delay of at
most one minute, and if certification succeeded, enters the schedule
trade information in the database making it available to the public.
Channel site handovers not on 30 minute boundaries must be
accomplished in less than 10 seconds.

The average protected contour radius of a license must be at least one

Each terrestrial broadcast band containing frequencies above 54MHz has the
following band restrictions (note that the particular selection of
channels restricted by a band restriction can vary from location to
location, as follows logically from the definitions):

At least 50% of band sample time for a location must be restricted to
programming of which 25% of the aggregate broadcast time, computed
once a month, must be manually generated programming which has not
been previously broadcast in any transmission whose primary region
overlaps the primary region of the transmissions comprising the
broadcast at issue.

No more than 50% of band sample time for a location can be broadcast
under licenses with average protected contour radii exceeding 30

Each and every terrestrial broadcast band has the following band

At least 25% of band sample time for a location must be broadcust
under licenses that have a non-commercial use restriction.

At least 5% of that portion of the band sample time for a location
that is broadcast under a commercial license, and 25% of that portion
of the band sample time for a location that is broadcast under a
non-commercial restricted license, must be restricted to licensees who
are individuals who hold a single license, the schedule of which does
not exceed 8 hours total for every two week period.  At least 20% of
the programming these licensees broadcast in a given three month
period must have not been previously broadcast by any licensee.  No
more than one such licensee among those who are members of a
particular organization, and whose channel site has greater than 25%
overlap of any primary regions of other such licensees of like
affiliation, can overtly espouse the views of that organization for
more than 10% of aggregate broadcast time over a one month period.

At least 20% of the band sample time for a location and 25% of the
non-commercial band sample time for a location not already restricted
in the previous paragraph, must be restricted to licensees who are
individual who hold a single license, the schedule of which does not
exceed 40 hours total for every two week period.  No more than one
such licensee among those who are members of a particular
organization, and whose channel site has greater than 25% overlap of
any primary regions of other such licensees of like affiliation, can
overtly espouse the views of that organization for more than 10% of
aggregate broadcast time over a one month period.

In at least 50% of the channels in a band, licensees who operate on
that channel for at least 126 hours each week (full time licensees)
can preempt licensees who operate for less than 126 hours each week.
A full-time licensee who preempts a part-time licensee is required to
compensate the latter for the amount the latter paid for its license.

That concludes the terrestrial broadcast band restrictions subsection.

No terrestrial broadcast license can be granted or transferred such
that a single licensee is authorized to broadcast in the same band at
the same time over two or more channel sites whose primary regions
overlap by more than 25% of any of the primary regions.  No satellite
broadcast license can be granted or transferred such that a single
licensee is authorized to broadcast in the same band at the same time
from two or more satellites.  No licensee can hold satellite
broadcasting licenses whose total license time exceeds 10% of band
sample time for any satellite broadcasting band.

No law can cause the automatic review, or involuntary application for
renewal, of a broadcast license in good standing.

Substantial misconduct or underperformance on the part of a licensee,
involving interference with lawful broadcasts, or repeated and lengthy
failure to broadcast program (either no carrier or no program carried)
involving at least three incidents within a month, each of at least
one hour's duration, or repeated violation of any of the requirements
set forth in this section after at least one official warning has been
issued for non-compliance within the previous year, results in a
return to a probationary license status, or loss of a probationary
license.  The licensee must be promptly informed of any misconduct or
underperformance of which he is accused, and must be promptly informed
of a change to probationary status.  Only a probationary license can
be revoked.