Human Maturation:: Concept of Adulthood -------------------- The legal status of "adult" is earned by passing oral and scenario simulation tests administered at the local, state, and federal levels, in that order, and on an appeals basis. These tests can examine only those areas of conduct that impinge upon the rights of others and must distinguish only on the basis of performance in these areas. Status as an adult is suspended while a convicted individual is imprisoned for a crime, and only then. In particular, the right to vote and to hold public office are restored upon release. The property of an imprisoned individual remains his property. To be an adult, an individual must be sexually mature or at least 18 years of age. A non-adult who is sexually mature or at least 18 years of age cannot be impeded, other than by the requirement of satisfactory test performance, in any attempt to achieve the status of adult. Upon successful passage of an adulthood test, the individual is issued a certificate which is encrypted in a mutable passphrase of his choice, which can be presented as sufficient proof of adult status for any anonymous but adult-only activity. It is a minor crime to reveal the passphrase, or decrypted certificate, to a non-adult. The adulthood certificate contains a 46 bit number chosen by taking a true random 46 bit number and incrementing it until a number results which is not in the database. To this 46 bit number is appended a 20 bit checksum of the number formed from the 20 least significant bits of the product of the lower 26, and the upper 20 bits shifted 26 bits toward the least significant bit. From the number and the checksum a 64 bit certificate identifier is formed. The certificate identifier is decrypted (signature mode) using an asymmetric keypair whose decryption key is held in confidence by the state, and whose encryption (verification) key is widely published. A 32 bit sequence identifier is appended, and used to identify which keypair was used in the decryption operation. Sequence identifiers must be allocated using the same random-unique technique as for certificate numbers themselves. The state is forbidden to store any information which would facilitate identification of the individual to whom the certificate has been issued. The state must make available a fee-free mechanism whereby the current validity of the certificate identifier can be verified. This mechanism cannot maintain any record of verification queries. Certificate and sequence identifiers are never reused. A compromise of a certificate causes the entry for that certificate to be flagged invalid in the database. A compromise of a certification keypair causes the entries for all certificates signed with that keypair to be flagged invalid. Certificates cannot otherwise be invalidated. Compromise of a certificate means that the passphrase for the certificate, or the decrypted certificate, has been made accessible to non-adults. Compromise of a certification keypair means that the private portion of the keypair has been made accessible to anyone who is not a state employee who is formally a trustee of the keypair. There must be only one such trustee per testing facility. No law can forbid, restrict, or provide penalties for, the exchange and distribution of adulthood certificates among adults. Distinctions of Adults ---------------------- Only adults can work as state employees (including work in the armed forces), pilot motor-driven vehicles on public roads, airways, or waterways without adult supervision, take custody of or operate a purpose designed deadly weapon without adult supervision, hold public office, vote in elections for public office, be paid for more than twenty hours of work per week, control land through ownership, or enter into contract enforceable at court, except that non-adults can be recipients in money contracts. Prohibition of Sexual Acts by Adults with Non-Adults ---------------------------------------------------- For the purposes of this section, a sexual act is defined as any deliberate physical contact of any portion of one individual's body with the uncovered genitals, defecatory organs, or breasts of another individual's body, except for medical or sanitary purposes by or with the consent of at least one parent/guardian. It is unlawful for an adult to engage in a sexual act with a non-adult. It is unlawful for an adult to generate, possess, obtain, or transfer, or to incite the generation, possession, obtaining, or transfer, of a photograph or other recording of a non-adult engaged in a sexual act. Rights of Children and Parents ------------------------------ Guardians can under no circumstances be forced to lose custody of a child, except as a sometime corollary of separation of previously cohabitating parents or guardians, or in the case of physical abuse of the child by the guardian which has lead to conviction in a court of law, or in the case of a protracted failure, of documented duration exceeding 6 months, to provide for the needs of the child as enumerated forthwith. All guardians are legally bound to provide for the housing, nutritional, educational, and medical needs of their guardees. These requirements are to be detailed in a widely available form. The requirements set forth regarding accomodation of housing needs must not extend beyond the basic necessity of protection from the elements and from infectious or toxic filth in the domicile. The requirements set forth regarding education must not dictate enrollment in a formal program, or otherwise require the guardian to pay for the education of the guardee, and in any case must not require education outside the range of basic skills limited to arithmetic, reading/writing in the language of state business, and a basic understanding of this document. A basic understanding of this document must be an educational requirement. The requirements set forth regarding accomodation of medical needs must not mandate enrollment, subscription, admission, or submission to any program on the basis of state, industry, or peer recognition or sanction, and must not mandate the use of any psychoactive drug as defined in
. If a child is without guardian, it is the responsibility of the state to provide for the needs of the child and with unremitting speed to seek a foster guardian. If a child is without guardian by reason of the guardian's imprisonment, the child must be returned to the custody of the imprisoned guardian upon his/her release. A guardian or pair of guardians can mutually transfer a child and guardianship therefore, to another guardian or pair of guardians. The receiving guardians assume all the responsibilities, and gain all the privileges, of guardianship enumerated herein. In the case that guardians separate, the child can choose which guardian to live with, or choose to split time between the two. The guardian chosen by the child assumes all the legal responsibilities of parenthood. If the child expresses no preference, but the guardians have worked out their own mutual preference, the parents' preference takes effect. If the child expresses no preference, and neither guardian wants custody or both guardians want custody, then if one of the guardians is the genetic mother who personally exclusively breast-fed or breast-feeds the child, custody is hers, unless the mother has a record which includes conviction for violent crime and the father's does not. If the terms of the foregoing are not satisfied, then the guardian who is distinguished by being the most immediate genetic ancestor gains custody, unless that guardian has a record which includes conviction for violent crime. If the terms of the foregoing are not satisfied, then the judge of the court decides who will gain custody, on the basis of who is best suited to provide for the needs (enumerated above) of the child, and who is most emotionally and intellectually suited to the demands of guardianship. Temporary custodial rights of at least one day per week (which can be accumulated for up to a year to permit accumulation of lengthy contiguous periods of custody), by a genetic parent, or by anyone who was formerly a guardian and with whom the child expresses a desire to spend time, cannot be denied, except that law can specify a basis for denial if the prospective temporary custodian has been convicted of a violent crime. In any arrangement of temporary custody, the temporary custodian must promptly honor requests of the child to be returned to a current guardian that persist for more than 24 hours, within the limits of transportation time, and must immediately report the requests, within the limits of available means of communication. Child Support ------------- In the case that a sex act between a man and a woman results in conception, then he can, at his sole discretion, abandon financial responsibility for any resulting child, but if he abandons responsibility, he must fully pay for the immediate medical expenses of childbirth or for the killing and extraction of the unborn child, between which the woman can choose at her sole discretion. Any such declaration of abandonment of financial responsibility must be officially supplied to the state at most 3 months after conception, or within one week of first officially learning that a conception or birth has occured. The woman must be informed of the declaration as quickly as possible, and if at all possible, within 24 hours of receipt. In the case that the man abandons financial responsibility, he abandons any right to visiting or temporary custody of the child that results from the pregnancy, but he must be permitted to visit or take temporary custody if the child requests it, or if he requests it and the mother permits it, in the manner set forth in . If the father is aware of the pregnancy, and does not register an affidavit, he must support the child, at a rate of up to one third of an average wage. At his discretion, the father can deliver all of the support by transfering to the current guardian actual goods needed to provide for the child, or non-transferable contracts that can be redeemed only for those goods. Paid Surrogacy and Sterilization -------------------------------- No law can forbid, restrict, or impair, the right of an individual to accept payment as an inducement for carrying a surrogate pregnancy, or to enter a contract to that effect, or of an individual or incorporated entity to act as a donor, supplying monetary or non-monetary inducement to another individual to carry a surrogate pregnancy, or to enter a contract to that effect, except as follows. No contract can abridge the right of the surrogate to terminate the pregnancy, by a medical procedure or otherwise, though a contract of surrogacy can specify that in that case, payment to the surrogate is withheld, and that any payments already made to the surrogate must be returned in full, though no additional payment by the surrogate can be specified. No law can forbid, restrict, or impair, the right of an individual to accept payment as an inducement for sterilization, and to enter a contract to that effect, or of an individual or incorporated entity to act as a donor, supplying monetary or non-monetary inducement to another individual to undergo reversible or non-reversible sterilization, or to enter a contract to that effect, except as follows. A non-reversible sterilization patient must agree to the procedure in contract at least twice, separated by at least one year. No contract can bind an individual who has undergone a reversible sterilization to reverse it, though a contract for sterilization can specificat that in that case, further payments to the sterilization patient are withheld, and any payments already made to the patient must be returned in full, though no additional payment by the patenti can be specified. As with any business relationship, the incorporated entity cannot reveal the identity of donors, surrogates, sterilizees, or information about transactions involving them, except at the explicit request of all implicated in a disclosure.