Law Enforcement::


Limits of State Surveillance
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Any surveillance of an individual by the state is unlawful without
court authorization and the knowledge of the party under
surveillance.  A court can only authorize surveillance when probable
cause of existing or impending criminal activity can be demonstrated.
The party to be surveilled must be promptly allowed to appear in court
to protest.  The state must not, through collusion with private parties
or foreign states, cause unauthorized surveillance.  The state must not
engage in surveillance for purposes other than law enforcement and
defense readiness.

No law can forbid a private individual, incorporated entity, or set
thereof, from taking measures which impede eavesdropping and
other third party surveillance, nor can any right, privilege, or
penalty, be prescribed or proscribed by law on that basis.

On State Law Enforcement Officers
---------------------------------
Except as specified in this document, only duly appointed law
enforcement agents of the state can cite, arrest, or detain people on
property not privately owned.

When not operating under cover for the purposes of investigation,
state law enforcement officers must wear a distinctive and easily
identifiable uniform, and their vehicles must bear distinctive
markings.  These uniforms and markings are to be specified by law, and
no one is permitted to emulate the appearance of a law enforcement
officer or his vehicle without the express permission of the body of
state law enforcement which displays that appearance.

No one who has been convicted of a serious, biological, or destructive
crime can act as a law enforcement officer or as a private security
guard.

In enforcing law, an officer is required at all times to use the
minimum and least injurious technique available to him sufficient to
neutralize a situation.

On Private Law Enforcement Officers
-----------------------------------
One or more private property holders can jointly hire, retain, or
become, one or more private LEOs.  On behalf only of those parties who
are contractual participants in the guarding arrangement, these
private police can act to enforce law.  They can operate within the
constraints on a common citizen, in a people-defending,
property-defending, and offender-restraining manner.  Or, through
approval either by the most local law enforcement investigative body,
or through direct democratic approval by the most local body of voters
with the number of yes's exceeding the number of no's by at least 50%
of those who voted, these private guards are vested with the authority
to enforce the whole of law, but only on the property they are
contractually empowered to guard, and within the full set of
constraints on law enforcement procedures as enumerated in this
document and by law, except that he is under no circumstances required
to don a distinctive or easily identifiable uniform.  A vested private
LEO can, with supporting evidence, seize persons for crimes committed
in the past, whereas a common citizen can only seize persons for
crimes in progress or just committed.

Private guards cannot have been convicted of a biological or
destructive crime, and cannot continue to be private guards if they
are so convicted.

A private guard must have a primary residence (more than 180 days of
residence within any 365 day period) within the geographic boundaries
corresponding to one of the voting regions most local to the area he
patrols (private patrols can cross state boundaries).

Private guards need not be fulltime; the duties of a private guard can
be attended by any formal contractual signatory including the regular
staff of a facility.

Certification as a law-enforcing private guard can be predicated only
upon lack of convictions for serious crimes, knowledge of law, and
knowledge of the particular tactics and procedures of law enforcement.
The certification procedure must be such that anyone who is eligible
to be hired as a state law enforcement officer, is certified, and any
specialized training available to prospective state law enforcement
officers, must be available to a prospective certificant for the same
fee (payable by the prospective certificant or by a sponsor) as is
required of prospective officers or their sponsors.  Entry into these
training programs can (though need not necessarily) be predicated on
lack of conviction for a destructive or biological crime.

On Entrapment
--------------
No one can be prosecuted or penalized for committing a non-physical
crime if a state employee created a circumstance, or otherwise took
action, which substantially caused or enabled said commitment.

Anyone who deliberately creates a circumstance, or otherwise takes
action, to cause or enable the commitment of any crime, has himself
committed a crime whose seriousness is proportional to the seriousness
of the caused or enabled crime.

On Coercion and Torture
-----------------------
In the case that it is clearly determined publicly by a court that
an individual holds knowledge about the deployment of an agent
directed, or a device arranged, to kill or effect serious physical
injury upon one or more people, sufficient to allow the agent to be
arrested or the device to be disabled before he/it causes harm, and
provided that said individual is an accomplice in the deployment of
said agent/device, any and all techniques of coercion and torture can
be employed in an attempt to force him to reveal the information,
provided no more force is used than necessary and no persisting
physical injury or disfigurement is effected.  Before pain-causing
methods can be used, a psychoactive application enhancing honesty and
compliance must be earnestly attempted.

Under no other circumstances are such practices permissable or
legal.

In the case that torture is used, one of the state employees who
advocates or approves the use of torture must undergo the same
procedure, and the veracity of the given justification for use of
torture must be thereby confirmed.  This employee is to be chosen at
random from among the advocating and approving employees.

On Siege
--------
An individual cannot be the subject of an armed siege unless he is
wanted to stand trial for a crime for which a term of incarceration is
specified, and a court has ordered the siege.

On Law Enforcement Tools
------------------------
Any item that can lawfully be bought, sold, owned, in the custody of,
used, or carried, by state law enforcement officers, can be lawfully
bought, sold, owned, in the custody of, used, or carried, by any
citizen, predicated only upon appropriate licensing when required.

Mental Competence of the Law Enforcement Officer
------------------------------------------------
No one who is mentally incompetent can work as a state law enforcement
officer.