Principles of Construction::

Structural Hierarchy
This constitution is organized into a set of chapters, each of which
covers a major subject area, and each of whose name is unique within
this document.  Each chapter is organized into a set of sections, each
of which covers an aspect of the chapter's major subject, and each of
whose name is unique within this document.

Syntactic Gender
In law, pronouns imparting gender morphologically or etymologically
apply equally to both genders and express no gender differentiation.

Physical Unit Terminology
In law:

Except as specifically and prominently noted, all numbers represented
with Arabic numerals are base 10, with the fractional portion (if any)
separated from the integral portion by a single period, which appears
nowhere else in the number.

Time on the scale of days and larger is measured on a solar calendar,
except when an absolutely precise, well-defined, and repeatable time
interval is appropriate.  A day is the time it takes for the earth to
complete one rotation about its axis.  A year is the time it takes for
the earth to complete one revolution around the sun, rounded to whole
days using the Gregorian method.  Each year begins on the twelfth day
counting from the day on which the winter solstice falls.  Each week is seven
days in length, and each day is part of exactly one week.  The year is
divided into twelve months of roughly equal length, each no less than
28 days in length nor more than 31 days, as delineated in the
Gregorian method.  Each day is part of exactly one month.  When law
specifies a duration of one month, it signifies a period of 30 days
and some fraction of a day, ending at midnight at the end of the day
which is the 30th day following the starting day, with the starting
day considered the 1st.

Time on scales smaller than a day, and whenever a precise,
well-defined, and repeatable time interval is appropriate, is measured
in hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second.  A minute is
exactly 60 seconds, and an hour is exactly 60 minutes.  A second is
the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to
the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of
the cesium 133 atom.

The meter is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum with
no gravitational effects during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a
second.  .0254 meter is one inch, twelve inches is one foot, three
feet is one yard, and 5280 feet is one mile.

One liter is the volume of a cube each face of which is one tenth of a
meter wide.  A gallon is 3.785412 liters, four quarts is a gallon, two
pints is a quart, two cups is a pint, and eight fluid ounces is a cup.

The kelvin is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature
of the triple point (point at which solid, liquid, and gaseous forms
coexist in equilibrium, under some particular pressure) of water.
To convert from Celsius to kelvin, add 273.15 to the Celsius
temperature.  To convert from Fahrenheit to kelvin, add 459.67 to the
Fahrenheit temperature, then divide that sum by 1.8.

A gram is one twelfth the mass of 6.022142E+23 chemically unbound
carbon 12 atoms at rest and in their ground state (E+23 representing
multiplication by the 23rd power of ten).

A pound of mass is equal to 453.59231 grams, an ounce of mass is one
sixteenth of a pound of mass, and a ton of mass is 2000
pounds of mass.

A degree is 1/360 of a rotational sweep through a full circle.

Variants of the foregoing units with Greek or Latin scaling prefixes
have their recognized meanings.  Defined as the power of ten to which
it corresponds, they are: yotta-, 24; zetta-, 21; exa-, 18; peta-, 15;
tera-, 12; giga-, 9; mega-, 6; kilo-, 3; hecto-, 2; deca-, 1; deci-,
-1; centi-, -2; milli-, -3; micro-, -6; nano-, -9; pico-, -12; femto-,
-15; atto-, -18; zepto-, -21; yocto-, -24.

One newton is the force that accelerates one kilogram at one meter per
second per second.

A pound of force is equal to 4.448222 newtons, an ounce of force is
one sixteenth of a pound of force, and a ton of force is 2000 pounds
of force.

Any other physical unit used in law or state-enforceable contract must
be defined as some precise algebraic combination of the above units,
with fully enumerated integer constants as necessary.  No further
restrictions can be imposed on units used in state-enforceable

Instruments of State Policy
A constitution is a single state document enacted within a unit of
state, superior to and constraining all other laws enacted within that
unit of state, approved by an affirmative vote of the affected
population, that creates and constrains state authority, activities,
and responsibilities, often in general terms suited to refinement by
statute and regulation.

A statute is a state document that enumerates a policy to be pursued and
enforced by the state, and can elaborate a framework or procedure for
such pursuit and enforcement.  A statute is created by a legislature, and
provides specification for the manner in which constitutionally
endowed authority is exercised and responsibility is met.  A statute
cannot create any state authority or responsibility, and is wholly
constrained by the applicable constitution.  Enactment of an
applicable constitutional section that conflicts with a portion of a
statute voids that portion of the statute.

A regulation is a state document that details a manner of operation
for one or more statutes or portions thereof, and is wholly
constrained by standing statutes and court precedents and rulings.
Enactment of an applicable statute conflicting with a portion of a
regulation voids that portion of the regulation.  Any state employee
so authorized pursuant to law can participate in the creation of

A court precedent is a state document that details a manner of
practical application at court for one or more regulations, statutes,
or portions thereof, or for a portion of a constitution.  A court
ruling is a formal decision of a court, according to the applicable
constitution and statutes, and optionally referencing applicable

An instrument of state policy is any portion, or the entirety, of a
constitution, legal code and constituent statutes, regulatory code,
court precedent, form, order, ruling, directive, decision, or any
other document enumerating a policy enforced or adhered to by the
state, action to be taken by the state, or elaborating a framework or
procedure for such action or enforcement, provided that contracts
between non-state parties are not considered instruments of state

Instruments of state policy that are not constitutions, statutes,
regulations, or court precedents or rulings, are enacted internal
to a branch of state, fully constrained by applicable constitutions,
statutes, regulations, and court rulings, to refine procedures for
mission fulfillment.

``Law'' appearing without a syntactic article refers to the policy described by
the complete set of standing instruments of state policy, and ``a law''
(preceded by the indefinite article, or by a definite article when a
particular instrument of state policy has already been introduced and
is specifically at issue, appearing as a plural, or preceded by a
quantifier such as ``any'' or ``no'') refers to the policy described by any
portion of that complete set.  An action or condition is ``lawful'' if
it is not forbidden by any applicable instrument of state policy.  An
action or condition is ``unlawful'' if it is forbidden by an applicable
instrument of state policy.

Morality and Law
Morality is the disciplined discernment and identification of the
right from the wrong.  It is an intrinsic property of legal systems
that they are also moral systems.  A law is an expression of one or
more moral principles.  For the purposes of this document, the term
"moral" is semantically identical to the term "ethical." and the term
"morals" is semantically identical to the term "ethics."  To avoid
confusion, the terms "ethical" and "ethics" should not be used in
instruments of state policy.

Lexical Discipline
Any word used in a state document with other than its ordinary
denotation as consistently elucidated in published general purpose
dictionaries, must be formally defined in a constitution, a statute,
or in the document in which it is used.  If the definition appears in
the constitution of a unit of state, then any instrument of state
policy of that unit of state and of all contained units of state must
adhere to that definition.  If the definition appears in a statute of
a unit of state, then any non-constitutional instrument of state
policy of that unit of state and of contained units of state, must
adhere to the definition, as elucidated in
.  Any
document can display special definitions which override the definition
inherited as described above.  Whenever the definition of a term is
specially enumerated within the document it appears in, and the
document is neither a constitution or portion thereof, nor a statute
or portion thereof, the term must be typographically distinguished.

State Activity
An agent of the state is an individual or incorporated entity that, by
formal contractual arrangement with the state, exerts authority over
other individuals and/or incorporated entities, beyond the authorities
defined in contracts entered between the former and the latter, in
fulfillment of state responsibilities as enumerated in law.  A state
activity is any action, proceeding, or commerce that involves agents
of the state in their official capacities.  An agent of the state has
extraordinary authority by dint of contractual affiliation with the
state only when operating in his official capacity, and each agent of
the state while operating in his official capacity must act
exclusively in pursuit of specific laws, which he must be capable of
enumeratively citing upon request (either verbally or by supplying
documentation).  In particular, no agent of the state can undertake an
action in his official capacity, including but not limited to
acquisition, disbursement, construction, transportation, and
collection and distribution of information, except as directed by law.

Definition of Publishing
To "publish" means to publicly disseminate in such a manner that
anyone may anonymously, though not necessarily without payment, gain
access to the information.

Definition of Mental Incompetence
An individual is defined as mentally incompetent if he is manifestly
psychotic or otherwise of unsound mind, either consistently or
sporadically, by reason of mental defect, among which are retardation,
schizophrenia or other acute hallucinatory and delusory defects of
mind, certain types of epilepsy and other seizure disorders which
render the individual coordinated and mobile but of unsound mind,
bipolar disorder which results in sporadic psychosis (but not simply
mild or moderate bipolar disorder), and other disorders which
consistently or sporadically render the individual starkly incapable
of maintaining awareness of and responsibility for his actions.

Proper Nouns
No constitution, statute, or regulation can refer to or mention an
individual, incorporated entity, or trademark, by name.