Human Identification Infrastructure

No law can require that an individual carry any external form of physical identification, bear any artificial identifying marks, or carry internally, through surgical modification or otherwise, any artificial device or marking substance, except that a state soldier can be required to carry such identification only while he is a state soldier.

All residents can choose to enter a unified state database of identities.   Voting, entering contracts recognized in state courts, holding of a state license or entering contracts with the state, purchase of dangerous devices and substances (as enumerated in this document), and any other commerce or conduct which the state is authorized to track (as enumerated in this document), requires being in this database.   No other rights protected by the state or privileges granted by the state can be predicated upon being in this database.

Each database entry has a unique, identifying number, a name of the individual's choice (typically the name their parents gave them at birth), and a cryptographic key set associated with it which is used exclusively for the signing of documents (and not for privacy protection).   Compelling an individual through any means to commit forgery with, or reveal the secret portion of, this key set, is a serious crime.   Use of another person's secret keys under any circumstances is a serious crime.   The voluntary surrender of one's secret keys is a serious crime.

Only an individual who has been convicted of a serious crime can be required to enter himself in the database.   Such an individual must be so required.

Only an individual who has been convicted of a destructive or biological crime can be required to submit to biometric measurements, the results of which must be entered into the database.   Such an individual must be so required.   Biometric information cannot be required by law of anyone who has not been convicted of a destructive or biological crime, and biometric measurements of individuals who have not been so convicted cannot be entered into the database.

Photographs or other visual renderings of a person constitute biometric measurements.

The state maintains an anonymously accessed database which maps identities to a list of revocations and suspensions.   The theft of an identity (compromise of a private key) is announced as an identity revocation in this database.

The validity of an identity or a license is confirmed with a single access to the suspension/revocation database.   An identity or license is pre-validated by authenticating the state-generated signature on the identity public key, and if validating a license, the state- generated signature on the license presented by the licensee.   Then the individual's entry from the suspension/revocation database is retrieved.   The license or identity is fully validated if and only if pre-validation was successful, no identity revocation is listed for the identity presented by the individual, and if validating a license, no suspension or revocation is listed which invalidates the license presented by the individual.

All suspension/revocation entries must include the nature, time, and place of the crime or event which prompted the suspension/revocation. No record can be kept of accesses to the database, except as necessary for protection from denial of service attacks.

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This is a preliminary draft. Pending changes are in The To-Do List