Human Identification Infrastructure
No law can require that an individual carry any external form of
physical identification, bear any artificial identifying marks, or
carry internally, through surgical modification or otherwise, any
artificial device or marking substance, except that a state soldier
can be required to carry such identification only while he is a state
All residents can choose to enter a unified state database of
identities. Voting, entering contracts recognized in state courts,
holding of a state license or entering contracts with the state,
purchase of dangerous devices and substances (as enumerated in this
document), and any other commerce or conduct which the state is
authorized to track (as enumerated in this document), requires being
in this database. No other rights protected by the state or
privileges granted by the state can be predicated upon being in this
Each database entry has a unique, identifying number, a name of the
individual's choice (typically the name their parents gave them at
birth), and a cryptographic key set associated with it which is used
exclusively for the signing of documents (and not for privacy
protection). Compelling an individual through any means to commit
forgery with, or reveal the secret portion of, this key set, is a
serious crime. Use of another person's secret keys under any
circumstances is a serious crime. The voluntary surrender of one's
secret keys is a serious crime.
Only an individual who has been convicted of a serious crime can be
required to enter himself in the database. Such an individual must be
Only an individual who has been convicted of a destructive or
biological crime can be required to submit to biometric measurements,
the results of which must be entered into the database. Such an
individual must be so required. Biometric information cannot be
required by law of anyone who has not been convicted of a destructive
or biological crime, and biometric measurements of individuals who
have not been so convicted cannot be entered into the database.
Photographs or other visual renderings of a person constitute
The state maintains an anonymously accessed database which maps
identities to a list of revocations and suspensions. The theft of an
identity (compromise of a private key) is announced as an identity
revocation in this database.
The validity of an identity or a license is confirmed with a single
access to the suspension/revocation database. An identity or license
is pre-validated by authenticating the state-generated signature on
the identity public key, and if validating a license, the state-
generated signature on the license presented by the licensee. Then
the individual's entry from the suspension/revocation database is
retrieved. The license or identity is fully validated if and only if
pre-validation was successful, no identity revocation is listed for
the identity presented by the individual, and if validating a license,
no suspension or revocation is listed which invalidates the license
presented by the individual.
All suspension/revocation entries must include the nature, time, and
place of the crime or event which prompted the suspension/revocation.
No record can be kept of accesses to the database, except as necessary
for protection from denial of service attacks.
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This is a preliminary draft. Pending changes are in The To-Do List