AMPP front page - The Architecture of Modern Political Power
original source: http://www.jbs.org/vo12no19.htm

 

Vol. 12, No. 19 - September 16, 1996


CONSPIRACY: IDENTITY AND OBJECTIVES

THE NEW AMERICAN - Copyright 1996, American Opinion Publishing, Incorporated

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Conspiracy: Where's the Proof?

Is there any hard evidence of an Insider plot for a "new world order"?

Conspiracy theory is doing America real harm. Long incubating underground, it has grown into the greatest enslaver of human minds since communism. It irrationalizes thinking on every issue. It kills. It turns millions of Americans against their own country. It undermines foreign policy by vilifying our government's every effort.

- Ira Straus
Christian Science Monitor

"What is the milieu in which criminal groups of 'freemen' and Oklahoma City bombers grow?" asked Ira Straus in a May 13, 1996 op-ed for the Christian Science Monitor. His answer: "It is the underworld of conspiracy theory, a subculture in which people share fantasies of fighting heroically against a huge Conspiracy that is taking over the world."

The Straus essay, "When Conspiracy Theory Replaces Thought," is subtitled, "The U.S. is threatened by Americans who believe Washington is part of a plot to enslave us in a 'New World Order,'" and it is but one of the latest and most blatant volleys in an ongoing campaign by the establishment media to paint in blackest terms anyone who uses the dread "C" word.

Crackpots and False Patriots

In his Monitor piece, Straus defines the "problem" further: "For decades, the John Birch Society has spread word of the Conspiracy: The international bankers who pull all the strings. The ones who really control both the Communist conspiracy and the United States government. The Trilateral Commission. The Federal Reserve, which is ruining our money. The Council on Foreign Relations - psst, they're out to destroy the Constitution, take away our guns, and enslave us in a United Nations One-World Communist government. Their code words: 'New World Order.'"

According to Straus, who is U.S. coordinator of the Committee on Eastern Europe and Russia in NATO, "Once a mind is trapped in the circular logic of conspiracy theory, it rarely finds a way out on its own." And this is a very "dangerous" thing indeed, he assures us, because "crackpots" infected with such "Birchist fantasy" are "capable of blowing up federal buildings."

Similar rantings spill out of False Patriots: The Threat of Anti-Government Extremists, a slick, 72-page smear by the Southern Poverty Law Center/Klanwatch, which is widely quoted in the media as an authoritative source on "right-wing" fanatics. "The Patriot movement," claims the SPLC diatribe, "is a potpourri of the American right, from members of the Christian Coalition to the Ku Klux Klan - people united by their hatred of the federal government."

After thus employing the most rancid of tactics to unfairly associate everyone to the right of Bill and Hillary with violent KKK racists, the SPLC tract darkly warns: "If America is to be saved, Patriots believe, our government must be destroyed." Like Straus' screeching monitory, the SPLC tirade warns that "Conspiracy theories fuel the [Patriot] movement": theories of a "New World Order," a "United Nations-dominated global government," and "an end to American sovereignty."

By now it is a tiresomely familiar theme redundantly shrieked by the usual cacophonous chorus: Bill Clinton, Janet Reno, Louis Freeh, the New York Times, the Washington Post, Time magazine, Anthony Lewis, Molly Ivins, Frank Rich, Morris Dees, the Anti-Defamation League, the ACLU, etc. According to the frantic refrains of this querulous choir, those who mention "conspiracy" or oppose the "new world order" and the United Nations share culpability with those terrorists who bombed the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. They are, shrills the choir, "dangerous," "irrational," and "paranoid." Those who take a principled, courageous stand for limited, constitutional government, who seek change through legitimate, honorable means, and who speak out against the abuses and usurpations of big government, are denounced as "anti-government."

Drawing the most practiced tactic from their slimy smear arsenal, the "liberals" attempt to silence all opposition and debate by falsely and cowardly tagging their adversaries with "fascist," "racist," "anti-Semite," "Neo-Nazi," "KKK" labels. It is a performance worthy of Lenin, who wrote: "We can and must write in a language which sows among the masses hate, revulsion, scorn, and the like, toward those who disagree with us." And the most intense hate, revulsion, and scorn seems always reserved for anti-communists who see conspiracy.

Attacks From "Conservatives"

The liberal-left, to be sure, holds no monopoly on hysterical antagonism to "conspiracy theory." Many conservatives likewise erupt in paroxysms of pique at the mention of anything that may sound even remotely related to conspiracy. Or they roll their eyes and smirk in ostentatious displays of smug superiority to the poor unsophisticated fools who "fall for grossly simplistic answers to complex problems."

Radio maestro Rush Limbaugh epitomizes this type of pseudo-sophisticate. The grand poohbah of broadcast blather and bombast reserves his most vitriolic ridicule for those who express belief in power politics, ruling elites, and the drive for world government, calling them "conspiracy wackos." Engaging in the kind of reductio ad absurdum for which "liberals" are infamous, Limbaugh offers his listeners a "pop quiz": "If Trilateralist A is driving West at 60 miles per hour and Trilateralist B is driving East at 75 miles per hour, how long will it take to control the country?" Or, even more typical of the liberal-left he claims to hate, he fabricates a straw man, falsely attributing positions to those he wishes to discredit, as in his repeated false claim that the John Birch Society has called "[William F.] Buckley a communist."

A similar but more highbrow approach is found among conservative intellectuals such as Robert James Bidinotto, a longtime contributor to The Freeman and a lecturer for the respected Foundation for Economic Education (FEE). In a Freeman piece entitled "Conspiracy or Consensus?" Bidinotto takes issue with those who see "deliberate direction" in "a kind of powerful force dragging modern society down," or who "deduce that the world is in the grip of a powerful, malevolently directed conspiracy." "Conspiracy theory" is wrong, Bidinotto explains, because it is based on "false logic," "naïveté," and "explanatory elasticity." "Yes - there is a powerful force dragging society down," he writes. "But that undertow is not an international conspiracy; it's an intellectual consensus. What conspiratorialists fail to appreciate is the power of ideas."

Being a "conspiratorialist" who was once (long ago) an unwitting dupe of collectivist ideology and false "intellectual consensus," this writer fully appreciates the "power of ideas." However, what Bidinotto and his fellow "intellectual consensusists" fail to appreciate is the idea of power, and the will to power of evil men - men who combine and conspire to further their evil purposes, often using and promoting a fallacious "intellectual consensus."

Yes, there are certifiably "wacko" conspiratorialists out there today promoting a dizzying array of theories about invasions by extraterrestrial creatures, UFO abductions, CIA assassination schemes, papal plots for world domination, Hitler clones in the Brazilian rain forest, etc. But are these any more "wacko" than this offering from Mr. Bidinotto:

In the 1950s, the puppeteers of world events were supposedly the "international Communist conspiracy." The conspiracy was centrally directed from Moscow, from which it extended globally like the arms of an octopus. Iron discipline held the conspirators together; highly publicized feuds among various communist nations were merely clever propaganda, meant to lull the West into complacency.

Recent Revelations

Amazing! Absolutely amazing! Mr. Bidinotto's mocking jab at the supposed anti-communist paranoia and hysteria of the 1950s is an incredibly oddly timed capitulation to the lies, innuendos, and treacherous deceits of the liberal-left - incredibly oddly timed because even many of the arch-avatars of the liberal-left pantheon are today acknowledging as true precisely what anti-communists were saying for decades and what Bidinotto now ridicules. Recently released documents from the Soviet archives and from the files of the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) prove (as if more proof were necessary) far more than these charges. The documents released in 1995 from the Soviet archives, published in The Secret World of American Communism (Yale University), and the NSA's "VENONA Project" show, for instance:

As we have said, even many liberals have been forced to acknowledge these truths. In a lengthy article in the Washington Post (of all places) earlier this year, liberal columnist Nicholas Von Hoffman confessed: "The Age of McCarthyism, it turns out, was not the simple witch hunt of the innocent by the malevolent as two generations of high school and college students have been taught." Likewise, ABC correspondent and syndicated columnist Jeff Greenfield has noted: "The problem, of course, was that there were real witches - not in Salem, but in America. That is, there were people who believed that communism was the one true cause - and believed that in serving Moscow by spying on the United States they were serving a 'higher good.'"

However, today - as in decades past - American high school and college students are still subjected to the rabidly pro-Marxist, anti-anti-communist propaganda of subversive textbooks. When it comes to reading about communism, the Cold War, and related topics, their resources are still likely to be The Paranoid Style in American Politics, by Columbia University Professor Richard Hofstadter; The Politics of Unreason: Right-wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970, by Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab; The Fear of Conspiracy, by Cornell University Professor David Brion Davis; Danger on the Right, by Benjamin R. Epstein and Arnold Forster of the Anti-Defamation League; The Great Fear, by David Caute; and other left-wing fare that has misguided the "intellectual consensus" of the past two generations.

Communist Phenomenon

Yes, Mr. Bidinotto, there was a communist conspiracy. And there is a communist conspiracy. Communism has been, and remains, the single most dramatically significant phenomenon of our century. It has enslaved billions of souls across our globe and has murdered between 100 million and 300 million. Even if one accepts the notion that "the Soviet Empire disintegrated" (and we do not: see the article on page 59), Communist China, Cuba, North Korea, and other militant "Peoples Republics" continue as before. And why should we now accept the received "wisdom" of Sovietologists, Sinologists, and other so-called "experts" who were terribly, dangerously, obstinately wrong for so many decades?

In a 195l decision upholding the convictions of U.S. Communist Party leaders, the U.S. Supreme Court correctly labeled communism "a conspiracy." This was exactly the same conclusion arrived at by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in its comprehensive 1953 report entitled "Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments."

In 1956, the House Committee on Un-American Activities issued a 1,997-page document entitled The Communist Conspiracy: Strategy and Tactics of World Communism, which substantiated in meticulous detail the terrible enormity, nature, and deeds of the global communist criminal operation. That same year, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover stated that in confronting communism, "the individual is handicapped by coming face to face with a conspiracy so monstrous he cannot believe it exists."

But we need not harken only to "right-wing" sources to establish this point. V.I. Lenin himself, in his famous instructions What Is to Be Done?, confirmed with his words what was obvious from his deeds: "According to its form a strong revolutionary organization may also be described as a conspirative organization - and we must have the utmost conspiracy for an organization of that kind. Secrecy is such a necessary condition - that all other conditions (number, and selection of members, functions, etc.) must all be subordinated to it."

Why is this so important to understand? Because in fighting the evils of communism (and its many collectivist permutations) it is imperative - as in any battle - to know one's enemy. It has been said that "communism is not an ideology in which men believe, but a conspiracy in which men participate." That being an amply proven fact, it is the height of folly to persist in the belief that it is solely "on the battlefield of ideas that the fate of the world will be decided." Honest dupes and misguided idealists may be intellectually converted, that is true, but those who have consciously chosen evil are not likely to be converted by "ideas." They must be morally and spiritually converted, or restrained by force. Sending missionaries into troubled areas to help keep youngsters from going into a life of crime may be a wise preventive measure, but without an essential police presence with adequate investigation and enforcement efforts, common hoods and organized criminal elements will soon overwhelm the unprotected.

Defining the Terms

In his instructions to the jury in the trial of Soviet atom bomb spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Judge Irving R. Kaufman gave this important explanation of conspiracy:

For two or more persons to conspire, confederate or combine together to commit or cause to be committed a breach of the criminal law of the United States is an offense of grave character which involves a plotting to subvert the law. It is almost always characterized by secrecy, rendering detection difficult and requiring much time for its discovery. Because of this the statute has made a conspiracy to commit a crime a distinct offense from the crime itself. From the point of view of the law there is danger to the public when two or more people conspire to do something that is unlawful because by virtue of the aggregation of numbers the intent assumes a more formidable disadvantageous aspect to the public.

The "aggregation of numbers" acting in secret to carry out unlawful acts does indeed multiply the danger, making it far more formidable. "What is a conspiracy?" Judge Kaufman asked, and then answered, "A conspiracy may be defined as a combination of two or more persons, by concerted action, to accomplish a criminal and unlawful purpose, or some purpose not in itself unlawful or criminal, by criminal or unlawful means...."

"However," he pointed out, "it is not necessary in order to constitute a conspiracy that two or more persons should meet together and enter into an explicit or formal agreement for an unlawful scheme, or that they should directly, by words or in writing, state what the unlawful scheme was to be, and the details of the plan or means by which the unlawful scheme was to be made effective." Kaufman explained:

It is sufficient if two or more persons, in any manner, or through any contrivance, impliedly or tacitly, come to a mutual understanding to accomplish a common and unlawful design, knowing its object, and that one or more of them commit an overt act in furtherance of the conspiracy. In other words, where an unlawful end is sought to be effected and two or more persons, actuated by the common purpose of accomplishing that end, knowingly work together in any way in furtherance of the unlawful scheme, every one of said persons becomes a member of the conspiracy, although his part therein be a subordinate one, or be executed at a remote distance from the other conspirators.

Notice that it is not necessary that all members of a conspiracy be on the same level, have the same motives, or the same knowledge of all operations, plans, and goals of the conspiracy. In fact, rarely is that the case. There is almost always a hierarchy in conspiracies of any size.

Conspiracies are a fact of human nature, present throughout all of recorded history. Pick up a newspaper in virtually any city on almost any day of the week and you will find a story about a grand jury issuing indictments for conspiracy. Most people have no difficulty understanding and accepting this idea of conspiracy. However, the idea of a global, self-perpetuating conspiracy - a conspiracy immense enough to manipulate and control governments and economies - seems to many a bit farfetched.

Historical Precedents

But it will not seem at all a foreign concept to those familiar with history, for there are ample precedents recorded of vast, powerful, transcontinental, transgenerational conspiracies. The diabolical cult of Thugee, for example, was as vile and dangerous a criminal conspiracy as has ever existed. The Thugs were a criminal secret society in India which combined robbery with religious devotion that involved ritual murder (usually by strangulation) and human sacrifice to the goddess Kali. This transgenerational criminal conspiracy thrived during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, but is believed by some historians to date back as far as the 12th century. During their long reign of terror, the Thugs claimed countless victims and it took an all-out "war" by the British colonial government in the 1830s to finally deliver India from this terrible scourge.

As notorious and fiendish as the Thugee was the secret and infamous order of the Assassins, whose very name posterity identifies with the most vile criminality. Founded by Hasan Saba in 1090 in Persia, the Assassins, or Hashishiyin (derived from their use of the narcotic hashish to ensnare and inculcate fanatical adepts) soon spread their malefic influence throughout Asia and the Middle East. While professing fidelity to orthodox Islam and maintaining an outward facade of piety, Saba's sect, through which initiates graduated in hierarchical degrees, was, in fact, an atheist-materialist cabal motivated by an insatiable lust for power. This sect perfected the use of murder, deception, corruption, and subversion to achieve its nefarious ends.

Remember Capone?

Closer to our own time, we are all somewhat familiar with the huge criminal conspiracy run by Al Capone. According to the World Encyclopedia of Organized Crime: "Capone was a murderous thug without remorse.... He was responsible for perhaps as many as one thousand or more murders, certainly hundreds. Worse, for a decade the city of Chicago embraced this bragging, boasting, strutting killer, its newspapers paying homage to him and quoting his every cretinous statement, its citizens - a goodly portion of the population - nodding tolerantly, if not approvingly, in his direction."

With the fabulous wealth gained from his criminal enterprises, Capone bribed cops, judges, jurors, prosecutors, and reporters - and "gave generously to charity." Notes the Encyclopedia, "Capone spent money lavishly on himself and those about him, projecting the image of generosity, of a philanthropist to the common man. Old-timers in Chicago still pay his bloody memory offhand compliments about the so-called soup kitchens Capone established in Chicago during the Depression to feed the hungry, little realizing that the crime boss did this at the suggestion of attorneys attempting to improve his horrible reputation when he was being tried for income-tax evasion." Much of the public and many politicians were willfully blind, refusing to believe that Capone was in fact the evil crime lord his accusers made him out to be.

So it was also with the crime bosses who followed after him. It wasn't until after the New York State Police discovered a meeting of 61 top Mafia figures on November 14, 1957 at a house in Apalachin, New York, that the FBI, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), and many others in law enforcement even acknowledged the existence of the Mafia. Even J. Edgar Hoover had frequently denied that such an organized crime entity existed. "They're just a bunch of hoodlums," he would comment. Likewise, politicians, prosecutors, and journalists would dismiss talk of a Mafia with international ties, blood oaths, and family structure as the product of the lurid imaginings of pulp fiction writers.

This writer once interviewed a chief of police who had pioneered in the investigation of the U.S. Mafia and who told of his exasperation over the years at trying to convince his IACP colleagues of the existence of the Mob, and of his equal frustration with those who admitted to knowledge of the Mafia but would not publicly say so, nor launch a concerted law enforcement drive against these organized forces of evil.

Not until 1963, when Mafia defector Joseph Valachi testified before the Senate Rackets Committee, did we even learn the name the mafiosi themselves applied to their criminal syndicate: Cosa Nostra - "Our Thing."

The most infamous mobster since Capone is John Gotti. Even though his rise to the top of New York's Gambino crime family left behind a trail of corpses, the "Teflon Don," as he was glamorized in the press, seemed untouchable. Time after time he skated free, basking in the glory of his celebrity and mockingly protesting his total innocence. His attorneys and defenders sneered at charges that he was involved in any criminal enterprise. Gotti was merely a hardworking plumbing salesman and garment center entrepreneur, a family man who lived by modest means, they argued. "He's only on trial because the government hates it that people love him," declared Carlo Vaccarrezza, his loyal adman.

When Gotti was finally convicted on RICO charges in 1992, throngs of supporters "spontaneously" materialized outside the courthouse with "Free John Gotti" and "We Love You, John" placards. When the verdict was announced, the thousand-or-so "demonstrators" rioted on cue, overturning police cars, smashing shop windows, and battling the police. Perhaps this made-to-order mayhem was the product of mere "consensus," but conspiratorialists couldn't help noticing that this rioting mob had been transported to the site on chartered buses, provided with pre-made signs, and received direction from Gotti street hoods with walkie talkies and cellular phones.

Mob/Red Partnership

The point is that the Mafia is a massive, transcontinental, transgenerational, self-perpetuating criminal conspiracy that has operated in this country since at least the turn of the century, and in Italy and Sicily for perhaps three-quarters of a century before that. Yet only recently has law enforcement succeeded in penetrating the surface of this dark menace. It is important to note also that this criminal conspiracy has long worked in concert with the communist conspiracy.

Much of what we know of the Mafia-communist symbiotic relationship has come from communist defectors such as Maurice Malkin, a member of the Communist Party's inner circle who had managed the Daily Worker and kept the Party membership lists. Malkin, a founding member of the Communist Party, USA, revealed details of this connection in his powerful autobiography, Return to My Father's House:

The Communist Party of the United States has had an agreement with the Mafia since 1924, with the arrival in the United States of Eneo Sormenti, alias Vidali Contreras Victorio.... Upon his arrival he reestablished the understanding between the Mafia and the Communists that was made in Italy by Bordiga, a leader of the Italian Communist Party, and by Ercoli Palmieri Togliatti, alias Ercoli.

The agreement called for the Mafia to do work for the Communist International, such as murdering opponents, distributing counterfeit currency and dope, stealing government documents such as seals and stamps for foreign passports, and other jobs which Communist agents could not carry out, but which the Mafia and its connections could.

According to General Major Jan Sejna of Communist Czechoslovakia, one of the highest-ranking defectors ever from the Soviet bloc, the Kremlin launched a major global effort in the 1950s to more thoroughly penetrate organized crime in all countries. As told in Red Cocaine, by Dr. Joseph Douglas, General Sejna explained the plan: "The Soviets reasoned that if they could successfully infiltrate organized crime, they would have unusually good possibilities to control many politicians and would have access to the best information on drugs, money, weapons, and corruption of many kinds. A secondary reason was to use organized crime as a covert mechanism for distributing drugs."

"Rescued" by the West

Working hand in hand, these two globe-straddling conspiracies wield enormous power. But this convergence of criminal interests and cooperation does not alone begin to explain the incredible totalitarian communist advances during the decades after World War II. The communists were relentlessly carrying out their comprehensive plan for global conquest, as detailed in the Programme of the Communist International, adopted at its 6th Congress in Moscow, September 1, 1928. But, incredibly, they were also advancing their diabolical design with indispensable help from the capitalist West (see page 39).

More and more Americans began coming to the realization in the 1950s that the advances of communism abroad and socialism at home had more to do with policies and programs emanating from New York and Washington than from Moscow. It was the vast transfusion of Western technology and money taken from American taxpayers that time after time saved communism from collapse. It was repeated betrayal by American diplomats, bureaucrats, and politicians that turned scores of nations and hundreds of millions of souls over to brutal tyranny. It was American officials who time after time appointed communists and communist sympathizers to sensitive government posts and then fought their removal when they were discovered. It was many of America's top financiers, bankers, and industrialists who were arranging loans and financial aid to the Kremlin.

Informed Americans became alarmed at the key role that several of the large tax-exempt foundations - Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie, particularly - had been playing in providing funds to individuals and organizations identified with communism and socialism. Even worse, some of the foundations had communists and subversives on their staffs and boards of directors (one of the most egregious examples being the appointment of notorious Soviet spy Alger Hiss to head the Carnegie Endowment).

In 1952, the U.S. House of Representatives established a formal committee to investigate the foundations. In 1953, the committee's top researcher, Norman Dodd, visited the New York City headquarters of the Ford Foundation at the invitation of Ford President H. Rowan Gaither. At that meeting, Dodd later recounted, Gaither brazenly told him that he and others who had worked for the State Department and other federal agencies had for years "operated under directives issued by the White House, the substance of which was to the effect that we should make every effort to so alter life in the United States as to make possible a comfortable merger with the Soviet Union."

The Seat of Power

It was growing obvious to many that that was exactly the course which our government was following. Dr. Bella Dodd, a former member of the National Committee of the Communist Party, USA, who left the Party and became a committed anti-communist, recounted that on occasion top orders for the Party came not from Moscow but from any one of three designated men at the Waldorf Towers in New York - all of whom were extremely wealthy American capitalists. "I think the Communist conspiracy is merely a branch of a much bigger conspiracy," said Dr. Dodd. "I would certainly like to find out who is really running things."

An important clue concerning "who is really running things" was revealed in 1966 when Professor Carroll Quigley of Georgetown University published his massive history, Tragedy and Hope. Professor Quigley, who had access to the secret records of the international network of moneyed power elites who have formed much of our governmental policies for decades, averred that "this network, which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other groups, and frequently does so."

That same year, Robert Welch, founder of the John Birch Society, published his important essay entitled "The Truth movement is only a tool of the total conspiracy," and pointed to the West as the real seat of the conspiracy's power. It is our intention, in the following pages, to present the truth about the Conspiracy and the Conspirators, and their goals, strategy, and tactics, in the hope that a sufficient number of Americans can be awakened and moved to proper action - in time.

- WILLIAM F. JASPER


THE NEW AMERICAN - Copyright 1996, American Opinion Publishing, Incorporated

P.O. Box 8040, Appleton, WI 54913
Homepage: http://www.jbs.org/tna
Subscriptions: $39.00/year (26 issues) -1-800-727-TRUE
WRITTEN PERMISSION FOR REPOSTING REQUIRED: Released for informational purposes to allow individual file transfer, Usenet, and non-commercial mail-list posting only. All other copyright privileges reserved. Address reposting requests to tna@jbs.org or the above address.



ACTION AND REACTION

From Ancient Rome to OKC

From antiquity to modern times, history is replete with examples of ruthless and corrupt politicians who have shamelessly exploited and manipulated tragic events and the criminal acts of a few to advance their own lust for power. In cases too numerous to mention, tyrants and aspiring despots have gone even further, engaging agents provocateurs to carry out assassinations, foment riots and rebellion, precipitate financial panics, attempt palace coups, feign foreign invasion, initiate acts of terrorism, and perform other infamous acts - all for the purpose of establishing a mass psychology of fear, a sense of "crisis," of imminent danger requiring the government to suspend normal liberties and seize vast new powers to deal with the "emergency." History records that far too often these "temporary" assumptions of power have given way to permanent brutal oppression, and to terror and mass murder by the saviors who promised deliverance from the "crisis."

Yes, as all would-be dictators know, the action is in the reaction. And as James Madison observed, "the people never give up their freedom except under some delusion."

Considering the current gadarene stampede into dictatorship by the American public as a result of the demagogic exploitation of the recent wave of terrorist acts, we would do well to reflect on a few relevant historical precedents. A calm consideration of our present situation in the context of previous human experience may help us avoid delusional flights into bondage and the pessimistic predictions that we "are doomed to repeat" the tragic mistakes of the past.

Enemies of Mankind

On July 19, AD 64, a terrible fire began near Rome's Circus Maximus, and when the fierce conflagration ended days later, most of the great city lay in ashes. Whether or not the fire was actually started by the Emperor Nero, as many have maintained over the centuries, there is no question that the Christians were unjustly blamed for the disaster. Although holding all members of the new sect responsible for the blaze would have too greatly stretched credulity, the megalomaniacal potentate nonetheless found a pretext for condemning them en masse by claiming that the followers of Christ were "enemies of mankind." Tacitus records that the Christians "were convicted, not so much on the charge of burning the city, as of hating the human race." Tacitus also records the incredibly cruel tortures and deaths to which these innocent scapegoats were subjected.

In England, controversy has raged over the infamous Gunpowder Plot for nearly 400 years. When Guy Fawkes was arrested on November 5, 1605 with barrels of gunpowder in a tunnel under the House of Lords, it seemed apparent that a conspiracy of Catholics against the government had been thwarted. Some historians, however, have argued (some more, some less persuasively) that the evidence points instead to a plot by Robert Cecil, the Earl of Salisbury, against the Catholics. The hand of Salisbury, the most powerful political figure in England under Elizabeth I and James I, is seen also, say some scholars, in the Babington Plot and Squire's Plot, which preceded the Gunpowder Plot and fed the growing anti-Catholic fervor. The recent publication of books by two historians arguing opposite sides of this controversy will not settle this aspect of the dispute, but there is a consensus among many scholars of the period that Salisbury's forces, at the very least, ruthlessly exploited and exaggerated the plots to launch a new wave of brutal persecution and to provide a pretext for confiscation of monastic lands.

Staged Provocations

Hitler's rise and reign in Germany provide many examples both of the use of agents provocateurs and the opportunistic exploitation of events to further evil objectives. Of these, the Reichstag fire of February 27, 1933 is easily the most famous example. Although it has never been definitively settled whether the fire was set by a communist saboteur or by a Nazi agent provocateur, it is beyond debate that the Nazis capitalized on the event with a vengeance. Insisting that the Reichstag fire prefigured a communist onslaught against the German state, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree "for the Protection of the People and the State," suspending constitutional liberties and allowing the state to exercise extraordinary powers in the name of "public safety." The death sentence was expanded to cover a number of crimes. Sound familiar?

As a remedy for the supposed "crisis" facing Germany, Hitler proposed a program of Gleichschaltung (coordination) through which the central government would absorb the power and political functions of the German states. On March 23, 1933, the Reichstag, succumbing to the Nazis' conspiratorial maneuvers, passed the "Enabling Act," which made the central government responsible for all law enforcement and conferred on Hitler's cabinet exclusive legislative powers for four years. This one act provided the legal basis for the transformation of Hitler from chancellor to dictator. It did not take long to prove how empty and completely disingenuous were Hitler's promises that "the government will make use of these powers only insofar as they are essential for carrying out vitally necessary measures."

Following close on the heels of the Reichstag fire came the "Night of the Long Knives" of June 30, 1934, an assassination blitzkrieg in which Hitler wiped out his old friend Ernst Roehm and the top leadership of the brownshirted SA. Roehm and his Storm Troopers had become troublesome competitors and had to be eliminated, but a plausible pretext for the purge was needed. No problem: A coup "plot" by Roehm was fabricated which served the additional purpose of providing further justification for legalized government terror. Hitler's one-paragraph law read: "The measures taken on June 30 and July 1 and 2 to strike down the treasonous attacks are justifiable acts of self-defense by the state." Many more equally fraudulent "justifiable acts of self-defense" would follow.

On November 7, 1938, a Jewish refugee from Germany, Herschel Grynszpan, shot and killed a German diplomat in Paris. This was exactly the incident the Nazi regime needed to fully unleash its attack on the Jews. On the night of November 9, 1938, Nazi-orchestrated mobs "spontaneously" rioted in retaliation, destroying Jewish shops and synagogues, beating and killing Jewish residents. It is remembered as the "Night of Shattered Glass," or Krystallnacht, and thereafter all opponents of the Nazis would be demonized as Jewish sympathizers and related "criminal elements."

Stalin's Purge

Stalin, who had studied closely Hitler's purge of Roehm, had his own "night of the long knives" - with a twist. His onetime friend and trusted aide, Sergei Kirov, had become a potential rival for Communist Party leadership and had to be eliminated. Stalin, the ultimate "conspirator from above," arranged for Kirov's assassination, with the murder to be blamed on the Zinoviev faction. Under Stalin's direction, following the assassination, writes Robert Tucker in Stalin in Power, "the floodgates of official adulation for Kirov opened wide. He was the 'Soviet people's favorite' and 'our Kirov.'" Tucker records that "the instant Kirov cult was blended into the Stalin cult, which took on added lustre. Kirov became 'Comrade Stalin's best comrade-in-arms and friend.' Stalin was shown in the honor guard, with Kirov in old photos, and as the first mourner at the Red Square funeral."

But Kirov's murder in December 1934 served a design much larger than the mere elimination of a single competitor. Tucker writes: "For the conspirator from above, the prime purpose of Kirov's murder was to make possible an official finding that Soviet Russia was beset by a conspiracy that had done away with Kirov as part of a larger plan of terrorist action against the regime." Thus Stalin had his excuse to begin the Great Purge, which, ultimately, would claim millions of victims.

Stalin had already arranged to have issued, a month before the murder, a statute empowering the newly created Special Board (headed by Stalin) to pass administrative sentence on "persons deemed socially dangerous." No definition of "socially dangerous" was given, allowing for the widest possible "discretion" in the exercise of this formidable power.

Plot Against the Pope

When Pope John Paul II was shot and very nearly killed in St. Peter's Square on May 13, 1981, it was instantly hailed worldwide as the work of a lone fanatic, even though Italian authorities revealed iron-clad evidence of a larger conspiracy. When U.S. mediameisters and officials were finally forced to concede the obvious, they insisted that, yes, Mehmet Ali Agca was indeed part of a conspiracy - a right-wing, Turkish, Islamic fundamentalist conspiracy! Even after terrorism expert Claire Sterling's masterfully detailed exposé, The Time of the Assassins, unequivocally demonstrated (and was later backed up by the Italian judiciary investigators) that Agca was a paid Soviet assassin, the U.S. State Department, the White House, the CIA, and the Western press largely ignored the indisputable evidence. That evidence showed beyond a shadow of a doubt that the Soviet KGB, operating through the secret police of its communist proxy regime in Bulgaria and the Turkish Mafia (which was headquartered in Bulgaria), had sprung Agca from a Turkish jail, trained him, provided him with weapons and false travel documents, and fabricated a false "right-wing" identity for him before the assassination attempt.

Although the plot to kill the Pope failed, the secondary objective, to provoke a widespread public reaction against "right-wing terrorism" and religious "fundamentalism," worked marvelously - worked because the Soviet agents, dupes, and sympathizers in the West could count on the ruling elites in our government and the media to cover up the Kremlin's role in this heinous act.

Throughout the 1950s, '60s, '70s, and '80s, Germany was plagued by recurring rashes of anti-Jewish vandalism and neo-Nazi activities: desecrated Jewish cemeteries, swastikas painted on synagogues, and threatening calls and letters to Jewish leaders. In a number of important cases, when the perpetrators were caught they turned out not to be neo-Nazis after all, but Soviet agents provocateurs. Soviet defectors, likewise, have repeatedly confirmed the importance that the Soviet strategists place on provocations of this sort aimed at manipulating public emotions and eliciting hatred not only for the neo-Nazis, but primarily for the conservatives, Christians, and anti-communists whom they falsely lump together with the Hitlerites under the expedient "right-wing" label.

Rabin Assassination

The assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin on November 4, 1995 provided another glorious opportunity for global "right-wing" demonizing. The alleged gunman, Yigal Amir, was said to be a "fanatic Jewish fundamentalist." What's more, we were told repeatedly, he was part of a conspiracy of "religious extremists" - a conspiracy so nefarious and immense, mind you, that it had achieved meteorological significance, creating a "climate of hate" and an "atmosphere of violence." According to Time magazine, Rabin's opponents had created climatologically "the equivalent of the right-wing milieu that led to the Oklahoma City bombing." In fact, said Time, even if Amir had acted alone, "he had many ideational conspirators." (Emphasis added.)

Yes, the Insider opinion cartel was only too willing to howl "conspiracy" when it served their transparent purposes. But when it came out that Amir was actually an agent of Israel's General Security Service (also known as Shin Bet), and that he had inexplicably been allowed through the security perimeter, Amir began to look more like a classic agent provacateur. That perception only deepened when a suspected accomplice, the notorious "right-wing" leader, Avishai Raviv, also turned out to be a Shin Bet operative. (For an in-depth look at the Rabin assassination, see "The Price of 'Peace'" in the February 5, 1996 issue of THE NEW AMERICAN.) As Shimon Peres and the Labor government rushed to cover up these and other untidy facts, the evidence pointed more and more toward the likelihood that Rabin had been assassinated by those in his own government (who controlled Shin Bet) in a desperate effort to save the phony CFR-made "Mideast Peace Plan."

Oklahoma City Bombing

In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, the American people have been subjected to a sustained propaganda barrage that may come as close to approximating the kind of vicious and thoroughly dishonest campaign of lies and distortion worthy of Nero, Hitler, and Stalin as this country has ever witnessed. The Clinton Administration and its political allies, fully aided and abetted by the establishment media cartel, have relentlessly sought to ascribe blame for the deadly Oklahoma bombing to the entire "American right wing." At the same time, the Clinton Justice Department and the FBI have gone to fantastic lengths to obstruct justice by covering up and destroying extremely important evidence in the case. (See the May 13, 1996 special issue of THE NEW AMERICAN, "OKC: The Case for a Cover-up.")

In the week following the bombing, President Clinton cleverly structured his attack on "purveyors of hatred and division, the promoters of paranoia," so as to broadly include virtually all of his conservative opponents in the condemnation. "They spread hate," he said. "They leave the impression - by their very words, that violence is acceptable." In a subsequent speech he denounced the bombing as an act by "the forces of organized evil" who, he insinuated, are linked to mainstream conservative and constitutionalist forces. This is so, he averred, because "they do practice and they do preach violence against those who are of a different color, a different background, or who worship a different God. They do feed on fear and uncertainty. They do promote paranoia...."

Even worse, charged the President, "these people attack our government and the citizens who work for it who actually guarantee the freedoms they abuse.... They can certainly snuff out innocent lives and sow fear in our hearts. They are indifferent to the slaughter of children. They threaten our freedoms and our way of life, and we must stop them."

It was an insidious attack clearly calculated to smear principled opponents of socialist government by falsely associating them with the perpetrators of vile terrorist acts. And it was the same base tactic to which he returned on May 1, 1995 in another disgraceful attempt to identify his critics with those responsible for the deadly bombing: "- we must also stand up against those who say that somehow this is alright, this is somehow a political act - people who say, I love my country but I hate my government."

Mr. Clinton's harangues were so transparently deceitful that even liberal columnist Charles Krauthammer (CFR) was moved to remark that the President had "repeatedly charged dark and unseen forces, a shadowy unnamed 'they,' with spreading paranoia - a classic of the very paranoid style of politics Clinton is ostensibly decrying." Unfortunately, Krauthammer's cogent observation was drowned out by the CFR-dominated media echo chamber which amplified and intensified the Clinton defamation campaign, and, borrowing a page from Nero's handbook, virtually branded all their opposition as guilty of "hating the human race."

- William F. Jasper



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An Annotated Bibliography

The problem with documenting the existence of a Master Conspiracy is certainly not one of a lack of evidence. If anything, the challenge is dealing with such vast, cumbersome, and time-consuming research material, and then communicating a concise summary of the thesis clearly and convincingly.

There are mountains of evidence, which can be organized in three standard categories: Primary source material, consisting of original documents, diaries, records, correspondence, and physical evidence from the persons directly involved in the events; contemporary source accounts written about the events close to the time they occurred; and secondary source material, which is overwhelmingly the easiest to obtain, consisting of accounts written much later.

Unless a secondary source utilizes verifiable primary or contemporary sources, its content proves little more than the opinion of the author. This is true not only of many so-called "conspiracy" books in recent decades, but also of many mainstream histories and biographies. In this bibliography we have concentrated on primary and contemporary sources, using more available secondary sources only when they contain and cite the original source material. Many of the original sources are available in major national, university, and private libraries, and some are available in recent reprint editions. They can also be searched by antiquarian book dealers. Several of the titles still in print are advertised in this issue on the inside front cover (designated by an "*") and page 62 ("†").

I. Order of the Illuminati

The original published form of the Order's papers include: Einige Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens (Munich, 1787); Nachtrag von weiteren Originalschriften (Munich, 1787); and Die neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo in dem Illuminatenorden (Munich, 1794). Published collections of the Illuminati papers include: Richard van Dülmen, ed., Der Geheimbund der Illuminaten (Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 1977); and Henry Coston, La Conjuration des Illuminés (Paris: La Librairie Française, 1979).

Two contemporary works which utilized the original documents were: John Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and Governments of Europe* (New York: George Forman, 1798; reprint edition, Boston: Western Islands, 1967); and Abbé Augustin Barruel's Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism, 4 vols. (London: T. Burton, 1797-1798). Barruel's study presents a much more detailed and more persuasively written account than Robison's, and this very important work is now back in print in a single volume, after being unavailable for over a century.*

Nesta H. Webster's World Revolution (Boston: Small, Maynard and Co., 1921) offers the most important secondary general history on this subject. The revised and updated edition published by Britons (Devon, England, 1971) contains an index and bibliography, as well as the important corrections Webster made prior to her death in 1960. Webster's Secret Societies and Subversive Movements (London: Boswell, 1924) is also very important, but unfortunately the last two chapters were never revised.

James H. Billington's Fire in the Minds of Men: The Origins of the Revolutionary Faith (New York: Basic Books, 1980) presents a copiously researched history of revolutionary politics, beginning with the Illuminati. Billington, who is presently the Librarian of Congress, is a respectable scholar whose findings cannot be dismissed as "right-wing" fantasies.

II. French Revolution and Napoleon

The article "Croquis ou Project de Revolution de Monsieur de Mirabeau" from Mystäres de la Conspiration (Paris 1791), and "Les Idées de Mirabeau sur la Franc-Maconnerie" from Révolution Française (October 1882) and (as translated by H.C. Bruce Wilson) Mirabeau's Scheme for the Political Penetration of Freemasonry (Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, vol. LVII, 1944, pp. 138-148) represent two primary sources in which the Illuminist Mirabeau expressed a plan to use French freemasonry to bring about a revolution.

Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés (Paris, 1789) was written anonymously by the Marquis de Luchet in 1788 to warn that the Illuminati intended to use French freemasonry to foment the revolution which occurred after the book was published. Nesta H. Webster's The French Revolution: A Study in Democracy (London: Constable, 1919), a master work documented with primary sources, reads like a textbook of subversive tactics that have been carried out ever since. Other valuable insights and details are found in Webster's Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Before the Revolution (London: Constable, 1936), and Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette During the Revolution (London: Constable, 1937).

J.E.S. Tuckett's study "Napoleon I. and Freemasonry," from Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge (vol. XXVII, 1914) offers evidence that Napoleon was initiated into French lodges controlled by the Illuminati. The fashion in which the Illuminati used and then disposed of Napoleon is examined in the three-volume work Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société by N. Deschamps and Claudio Jannet (Avignon: Fr. Seguin Ainé, 1876), much of which is summarized in English in The War of the Antichrist with the Church and Christian Civilization by Msgr. George F. Dillon (Dublin: M.H. Gill & Son, 1885). This very important work has been reprinted (with an inaccurate preface) as Grand Orient Freemasonry Unmasked as the Secret Power Behind Communism (London: Britons, 1965).

Those who are new to the Master Conspiracy thesis might consult Rev. Clarence Kelly's study Conspiracy Against God and Man* (Boston: Western Islands, 1969), which provides a scholarly but accessible examination of the Illuminati and the French Revolution.

III. Survival and Continuity of the Illuminati

Authenticated reproductions of correspondence among Weishaupt's agents up until 1814 are available in Benjamin Fabre's Un Initié des Sociétés Secrètes supérieures "Franciscus, Eques A Capite Galeato" 1753-1814, Portrait et Documents inédits Nombreuses reproductions en Photogravure, Preface de Copin-Albancelli (Paris: La Renaissance Française, 1913).

The role of Italian illuminist Fillippo Buonarroti in continuing Weishaupt's work is examined in Memoirs of the Secret Societies of the South of Italy, Particularly the Carbonari, Translated from the Original Ms. (London: John Murray, 1821) and J. Cretineau-Joly's two-volume L'Église Romaine en face de la Révolution (Paris: Plon, 1860), as well as in The First Professional Revolutionist: Filippo Michele Buonarroti, 1761-1837 by Elizabeth L. Eisenstein (Cambridge: Harvard, 1959), and Arthur Lehning's essay "Buonarroti and His International Secret Societies" in the International Review of Social History (1956), Vol. I, pp. 112-140.

Scholarly treatments of the Illuminati's continuing influence upon France can be found in The Cradle of Rebellions: A History of the Secret Societies of France by Lucien de la Hodde (New York: John Bradburn, 1864); French Freemasonry and the Third Republic by Mildred Headings (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1949); and La Republique du Grand Orient by Henry Coston (Paris: La Librairie Française, 1976).

IV. Communist Movement: Illuminist Spawn

The Utopian Communist: A Biography of Wilhelm Weitling, Nineteenth-Century Reformer by Carl Wittke (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1950) illustrates the pivotal role of the "League of the Just" in the transition from Weishaupt's Illuminati to the 19th century communist movement. This is also documented in Karl Marx: The Red Prussian by Leopold Schwartzchild (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1947).

The continuation of conspiratorial efforts to use terrorism and assassination is documented in Anarchy and Anarchists by Michael J. Shaack (Chicago: F.J. Schulte, 1889). Recently reprinted in hardback, Shaack's book is an exhaustive history of the Chicago Haymarket Square bombing in 1886 and its background in illuminist-dominated European radical politics.

V. Nazism's Illuminst Origins

Rudolf von Sebottendorff's Bevor Hitler Kam (Munich, 1934) is a valuable contemporary account. Details of the Nazi movement's occultic/illuminist roots are found in Hitler et les sociétés secrètes: Enquete sur les sources occultes du nazisme by Rene Alleau (Paris: Editions Bernard Grasset, 1969). Other studies include The Occult and the Third Reich by Jean-Michel Angebert (New York: MacMillan, 1974); and Satan and Swastika, The Occult and the Nazi Party by Francis King (St. Albans, Herts: Mayflower, 1976). The crucial linkages between Soviet Communism and German National Socialism are documented in Cecil F. Melville's The Russian Face of Germany (London: Wishart, 1932) and Jan Valtin's Out of the Night (New York: Alliance, 1944).

VI. World War I and the League of Nations

How Diplomats Make War (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1921) by Francis Neilson and How the War Came by The Earl Loreburn (London: Methuen & Company, 1919) offer detailed accounts of diplomatic plotting in the buildup to WWI. Compelling explorations of the duplicity that entangled the U.S. in WWI can be found in America Goes to War by Charles Callan Tansill (Boston: Little Brown, 1938) and Colin Simpson's groundbreaking exposé, The Lusitania (Boston: Little Brown, 1972).

Detailed first-person recollections of "Colonel" Edward Mandell House, one of the principal plotters, have been compiled in Intimate Papers of Colonel House, Charles Seymour, ed. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1928, 4 vols.). Philip Dru: Administrator, A Story of Tomorrow, 1920-1935 (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1912), published anonymously by House, offers the arch-conspirator's blueprint for socialist reforms of America's political system and the creation of a "League of Nations." La Dictature de la Franc-Maçonnerie sur la France, Documents by A.G. Michel (Paris: Editions Spes, 1924) documents the Illuminist origin of the League of Nations.

VII. The Bolshevik Coup in Russia

Edgar Sisson's One Hundred Red Days: A Personal Chronicle of the Bolshevik Revolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931) is a valuable firsthand account of the Bolshevik conspiracy in action. Another riveting account is found in Stefan A. Possony's A Century of Conflict (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1953).

George Katkov's study "German Foreign Office Documents on Financial Support to the Bolsheviks in 1917" in International Affairs, vol. 32, no. 2 (April 1956) and Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution by Antony Sutton (Westport, CT: Arlington House, 1974) document early Western support for the Russian communists. Both sources present the evidence, rather than the conclusions, of the respective authors.

VIII. New Deal and Soviet Infiltration of Executive Branch

Wall Street and F.D.R. by Antony C. Sutton (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1975) and "Hearings, House of Representatives, Select Committee to Investigate Certain Statements of Dr. William Wirt," 73rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 10 and 17, 1934 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1934) provide crucial background to the collectivist revolution brought about by FDR. Valuable background to this revolution is found in G. Edward Griffin's monumental The Creature From Jekyll Island, A Second Look at the Federal Reserve* (Westlake, CA: American Media, 1994).

The Web of Subversion by James Burnham (Boston: Western Islands, 1965) and Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era by John E. Haynes (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996) document the reality of Soviet infiltration of the Executive Branch, which began in earnest during the New Deal.

IX. Bringing on World War II

David Irving's Churchill's War (New York: Avon Books, 1991) may be the most important and best documented study of this topic by one of the outstanding historians of the century. Extraordinary insights are also found in Francis Neilson's The Churchill Legend (Appleton, WI: C.C. Nelson, 1954), The Makers of War (Appleton, WI: C.C. Nelson, 1950), and his major five-volume work, The Tragedy of Europe, A Commentary on the Second World War, 1938-1945 (Appleton, WI: C.C. Nelson, 1940-1946).

The complicity of FDR's administration in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is documented in Infamy: Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath by John Toland (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982). Many earlier works proved that the Roosevelt Administration not only encouraged Japan to attack in order to have an excuse to enter the war but knew in advance about Pearl Harbor. Those works include Perpetual War For Perpetual Peace, Harry Elmer Barnes, ed. (Caldwell, ID: Caxton, 1953) and Back Door to War, The Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 1933-1941 by Charles Callan Tansill (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952).

The role of Western Insiders in catapulting Hitler to power is the subject of Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler by Antony C. Sutton (Seal Beach, CA: '76 Press, 1976).

X. The United Nations and the New World Order

Primary source documentation of explicit plans of top U.S. officials to submerge the U.S. under a UN-run world government can be found in Freedom From War: The United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World, Department of State Publication 7277 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961), and A World Effectively Controlled by the United Nations by Lincoln P. Bloomfield (Washington, DC: Institute for Defense Analyses, 1962).

Agenda 21: The Earth Summit Strategy to Save Our Planet edited by Daniel Sitarz (Boulder, CO: Earthpress, 1993) provides the text of the UN's proposal for planetary eco-tyranny and enthusiastically endorses it as "an array of actions which are intended to be implemented by every person on earth," and a plan which "will require a profound reorientation of all human society, unlike anything the world has ever experienced."

The mass murder of civilians in Katanga by UN "peacekeepers" is documented in 46 Angry Men by the 46 civilian doctors of Elizabethville (Belmont: American Opinion, 1962) and Rebels, Mercenaries and Dividends: The Katanga Story by Chicago Daily News correspondent Smith Hempstone (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962).

Our Global Neighborhood: The Report of The Commission on Global Governance (Oxford University Press, 1995) presents detailed plans for equipping the UN with taxing authority, a battle-ready military, an international criminal court with mandatory jurisdiction over individuals, and every other attribute of a fully-functioning world government.

Three amply documented critical studies of the UN are The Fearful Master, A Second Look at the United Nations by G. Edward Griffin (Boston: Western Islands, 1964), Global Tyranny - Step By Step† by William F. Jasper (Appleton, WI: Western Islands, 1992), and Freedom on the Altar† by William Norman Grigg (Appleton, WI: Western Islands, 1995).

XI. Domestic and Foreign Policy Elite

Carroll Quigley's mammoth historical study Tragedy and Hope* (New York: MacMillan, 1966) includes a frank discussion of the "anglophile network" which links the Council on Foreign Relations to world-government-promoting elites worldwide, including the communists. A detailed and documented history of that network is offered in Quigley's The Anglo-American Establishment* (New York: Books in Focus, 1981) and Walter Nimock's Milner's Young Men: The "kindergarten" in Edwardian Imperial Affairs (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1968).

William H. McIlhany II's The Tax-Exempt Foundations (New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1980) contains the only in-depth coverage of the findings of Norman Dodd, Research Director of the Reece Committee congressional investigation from 1953-54, including the roles played by Wayne Hays, former CIA Director William Casey and, regrettably, René Wormser in sabotaging the investigation. The Shadows of Power: The Council on Foreign Relations and the American Decline* by James Perloff (Appleton, WI: Western Islands, 1988) uses the CFR's own publications and official history in compiling a compelling indictment of the group.

XII. Maintenance and Expansion of Communist Power Since 1917

Antony C. Sutton's three-volume Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development, 1917-1965 (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1968-1973) details the total dependency of the Soviet Union on Western aid and technology, most of that from the United States or subsidized by U.S. taxpayers. This work was summarized and updated in his books National Suicide: Military Aid to the Soviet Union (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1974) and The Best Enemy Money Can Buy (Billings, Montana: Liberty House, 1986).

Other important sources include: From Major Jordan's Diaries by Maj. George Racey Jordan (Boston: Western Islands, 1965); Red Carpet by Joseph Finder (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1983); Vodka Cola by Charles Levinson (London: Gordon and Cremonesi, circa 1978); and East Minus West = Zero by Werner Keller (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1962). The bloody results of this relationship are on display in R.J. Rummel's Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1990) and China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1991).

XIII. Communist Strategy for Conquest

The comprehensive Soviet blueprint for world revolution was set forth in Moscow on September 1, 1928 as the Program of the Communist International Adopted At Its 6th Congress, and has been followed religiously by the Soviet strategists for nearly 70 years. This document can be found in The Communist International: Documents, Vol. 2: 1923-1948, edited by Jane Degras (New York: F. Cass Co., 1971).

Rabbi Marvin Antelman's To Eliminate the Opiate (New York: Zahavia, 1974) explores the illuminist/communist subversion of traditional Judaism. Mary Ball Martinez's The Undermining of the Catholic Church (Published by the author, second edition, address: Amsterdam 99-501, Mexico, D.F., 06100, Mexico, 1991) examines the subversion of Catholicism.

The effort to foment racial antagonisms is explored in Alan Stang's It's Very Simple: The True Story of "Civil Rights" (Boston: Western Islands, 1965) and William H. McIlhany II's Klandestine: The Untold Story of Delmar Dennis and His Role in the F.B.I.'s War Against the Ku Klux Klan (New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1975).

The Soviet KGB international terrorist network is the subject of Histoire Secrète des Organisations Terroristes, 4 vols. (Genève: Éditions Famot, 1976) by Pierre deVillemarest; The Terror Network (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981), The Time of the Assassins (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1983), and Thieves' World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), all by Claire Sterling; Red Cocaine by Joseph D. Douglas (Atlanta, GA: Clarion House, 1990); and Terrorism: The Soviet Connection by Ray S. Cline and Yonah Alexander (New York: Crane Russak, 1984).

XIV. U.S. Foreign Policy After 1945: Promoting Communism Everywhere

Ambassador Arthur Bliss Lane's I Saw Poland Betrayed (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1948) was suppressed immediately upon publication. A similar effort was made to spike Robert Welch's critical profile of Dwight Eisenhower, The Politician (Boston: Belmont Publishing, 1964). Alan Stang's The Actor: The True Story of John Foster Dulles (Boston: Western Islands, 1968) and Hilaire du Berrier's Background to Betrayal: The Tragedy of Vietnam (Boston: Western Islands, 1965) provide elaborate background on the perfidy of America's ruling elite. Earl E.T. Smith's The Fourth Floor (New York: Random House, 1962) details the betrayal of Cuba, and Nicaragua Betrayed (Boston: Western Islands, 1980) by Anastasio Somoza and Jack Cox documents the nearly identical betrayal of Nicaragua.

XV. Glasnost and Perestroika: The KGB's Massive Deception Since 1989

Anatoliy Golitsyn's New Lies For Old* (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1984) and The Perestroika Deception* (London & New York: Edward Harle Ltd., 1995) are indispensable for an understanding of the ongoing Soviet "reforms." Edward J. Epstein's Deception: The Invisible War Between the KGB and the CIA (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989) is another valuable source. Since 1991, Soviet Analyst journal, edited and published by Christopher Story ($350 for 10 issues per year from: World Reports Limited, 108 Horseferry Road, London SW1P 2EF), has provided detailed analysis of Soviet disinformation strategy written from the perspective of Anatoliy Golitsyn.

- WILLIAM H. MCILHANY



THE NEW AMERICAN - Copyright 1996, American Opinion Publishing, Incorporated - P.O. Box 8040, Appleton, WI 54913
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Copyright 1996 American Opinion Publishing, Incorporated