Foundations of War - Is the CFR Financing SAIS Nitze's "Not-See" Spy School?

In 1944 a group of statesmen founded The Paul H. Nitze School. of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). At least one, Paul H. Nitze, was a Council on Foreign Relations(CFR) member. The resident SAIS faculty includes 36 professors. At least 20 are CFR members, two are CFR fellows.

Council on Foreign Relations members in an ad hoc committee called the "Special Group" and through a vast intragovernmental undercover infrastructure called the "Secret Team" plan and coordinate massive psychological operations scripted using "Tactics of Deception." American citizens and citizens of foreign nations are manipulated to accept the particular climate of opinion the groups are seeking to achieve in the world. Is SAIS a cover for Council on Foreign Relations "Special Group" and "Secret Team" members and covert operator training school?1

CFR member Nitze, Graduated cum laude from Harvard in 1928. He joined Dillon, Read and Co., a New York investment banking firm. In 1944 he went to Washington to join the war effort. He became Financial Director of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, Nitze was married to the late Phyllis Pratt. They had four children. He is now married to Elisabeth Scott Porter. CFR member Nitze's legal residence is in Washington, D.C. He has a second residence in Bel Alton, Maryland. Council on Foreign Relations headquarters is The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, New York, NY.2

CFR Member Nitze's vita reads:

1953-61 President Foreign Service Educational Foundation, Washington D.C.

1947-53 Various positions with the Department of State,

1947 Deputy Director of the Office of International Trade Policy.

1948 Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs.

1949 Deputy Director of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff,

1950 Director State Department's Policy Planning Staff

1961-63 Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs.

1963-67 57th Secretary of the Navy

1967-69 Deputy Secretary of Defense.

1969-74 US Delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks with the Soviet Union.

1981-84 Headed Arms Control Talk Negotiating Team

1984-89 Special Advisor Arms Control to Sec. of State and President.

President Reagan appointed him Ambassador-at-Large, the position in which he served until his retirement. Nitze has been diplomat-in-residence at SAIS since retiring from the State Department on April 30, 1989.3

When a CFR member tries to make a difference it is a difference designed to create tension between two or more target groups. In 1993 Nitze published a book titled TENSION BETWEEN OPPOSITES: REFLECTIONS ON THE PRACTICES AND THEORY OF POLITICS. Is Nitze really retired, or has he assumed another cover for his role in the "Special Group" that co-ordinates State Department Psychological Operations focused at Americans and citizens of other nations?4

CFR member Zbigniew Brzezinski is SAIS Robert E. Osgood Professor of American Foreign Policy. CFR members: Brzezinski (Public Law and Government Professor, Columbia ); Frederick C. Barghoorn (Political Science Professor, Yale ); and George A. Kelly (Politics Professor, Brandeis ); contributed to THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS. The book contains a series of case studies sponsored by the US Department of the Army.

CFR member Paul Wolfowitz, Ph.D. is SAIS Chairman and Dean. Prior to joining SAIS as dean in 1994, Wolfowitz taught at the National Defense University as a visiting distinguished fellow.5

Other Council on Foreign Relations SAIS faculty members are: Fouad Ajami (Majid Khadduri Professor and Director of Middle East Studies), A. Doak Barnett (Professor emeritus of Chinese Studies), Frederick Brown (Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute and Adjunct Professor Southeast Asian Studies Program), Charles Doran (Andrew W. Mellon Professor of International Relations and Director of Canadian Studies), Isaiah Frank (William L. Clayton Professor of International Economics), Francis Fukuyama (Director of the SAIS Telecommunications Project and Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute), Charles Gati (Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute), Christian Herter (Professorial Lecturer in International Relations), David M. Lampton, Ph.D.(George and Sadie Hyman Professor of China Studies and Director of China Studies), Michael Mandelbaum (Christian A. Herter Professor and Director of American Foreign Policy), Steven Muller (Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute), Donald Oberdorfer (Journalist-in-Residence, Foreign Policy Institute), George Packard (Edwin O. Reischauer Professor and Director of the Reischauer Center for East Asian Studies), Riordan Roett (The Sarita and Don Johnston Professor and Director of Latin American Studies), Hederick Smith (Editor-in-Residence, Foreign Policy Institute), S. Frederick Starr (Chairman, Central Asia Institute), I. William Zartman (Jacob Blaustein Professor of International Organizations and Conflict Resolution and Director of African Studies). The two Council on Foreign Relations Fellows on the SAIS faculty are Andrew J. Bacevich and Wilford L. Kohl.

When SAIS opened 15 students were enrolled. SAIS became a division of Johns Hopkins University in 1950. By 1963, SAIS outgrew its first quarters on Florida Avenue, Washington, DC, and moved to one of its two present buildings on Massachusetts Avenue. By 1995, more than 8,600 men and women had graduated from SAIS. They are now working in 143 countries. Are these graduates covert operators?

SAIS Alumni are employed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Education, and State, and Office of the U.S. Trade Representative [see NAFTA PSYOP].6 President William J. Clinton, Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Secretary of Health Education and Welfare Donna E. Shalala and Director of the CIA John Deutch are all Council on Foreign Relations members.

SAIS maintains centers in Bologna, Italy, and Nanjing, China. The Bologna center was founded in 1955. "The student body is composed of some 150 to 170 university graduates. About 45 percent of the students come from the United States, 45 percent from Europe, and the remaining 10 percent from Canada and countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The Bologna Center presently has 4,221 alumni representing 88 nationalities. They hold positions of importance in the public and private sectors of their respective countries--in foreign ministries and other government agencies, international and regional organizations, multinational corporations, banks and other financial institutions, non-profit organizations, journalism, and research centers and universities around the world."7

Is SAIS a school for Intelligence Agents and Covert Operators? Do SAIS graduates work for American and foreign intelligence agencies? Are alumni of the Hopkins Bologna Center and Hopkins-Nanjing Center Foreign intelligence agents? Do these intelligence agents participate in psycho-political operations and covert operations that further the aims of the United States Council on Foreign Relations and its branch organizations in other nations?

The Hopkins-Nanjing Center was established in 1968. It is located in the Peoples Republic of China "in Nanjing City, the capital of Jiangsu Province in the Yangtze River delta. The Center facility is adjacent to the campus of Nanjing University. The Chinese students live with graduate students from the United States and other countries who take courses from Nanjing University faculty in Mandarin Chinese. The Hopkins-Nanjing Center is the only American educational institution with a permanent physical presence in China."8

The Center's American students who held jobs before their time in Nanjing have worked for such employers as the Beijing Trade Exchange in Washington, D.C., the CBS News Bureau in Beijing, The Los Angeles Times, The Dow Chemical Company, General Electric Company, the Voice of America, the U.S. Army, U.S. Peace Corps, The Asia Society, Citibank, and the American Enterprise Institute.9

The American Enterprise Association was founded in 1943. It latter changed its name to the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. In 1979 the American Enterprise Institute began publishing a magazine called Public Opinion. 10 The American Enterprise Institute advertises itself to be a nonpartisan, nonprofit, research and educational organization based in Washington D. C. "The institute conducts seminars and conferences, and publishes books and periodicals. The AEI's research is carried out under three major programs: Economic Policy Studies; Foreign Policy and National Security Studies; and Social and Political Studies. " The American Enterprise Institute has a network of resident scholars and fellows. The network includes over ninety adjunct scholars at leading universities throughout the United States of America and in several foreign countries. Do these AEI scholars monitor the effectiveness of CFR psyops on University Students and report this information to the AEI as part of the Institutes Public Policy Research program?11

The last issue of Public Opinion was the May/June issue published in 1989. Nine people were on the Public Opinion Editorial Board. Five were Council on Foreign Relations members (David R. Gergen, Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, Irving Kristol, William Schneider, and Richard J. Whalen). 12 The Board of Trustees of the American Enterprise Institute had twenty-six members. Six were Council on Foreign Relations members: Willard C. Butcher (Chairman. and CEO Chase Manhattan Bank), Robert Anderson (Chairman. of the Executive Committee Rockwell International Corp. ), Paul W. McCracken (Edmund Ezra Day University Professor Emeritus University of Michigan), Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. (Chairman CEO Pfizer, Inc. ), Richard D. Wood (Chairman of the Board Eli Lilly and Co. ), and Walter B. Wriston (Former Chairman of Citicorp).13

The Chinese Institute of Pacific Relations is the CFR's branch in china. It runs Chinese government and industry. In April of 1989 the Chinese Government demonstrated the great lengths it would go to to retain its workers. Students camped out in Beijing's Tiananamon Square protesting economic and political corruption in Chinese Government. Over 100,000 students and workers marched. Twenty other cities in China saw similar protests. Martial law was imposed. Army troops crushed protests in Tiananamon Square. Death toll estimates were between 500-7000. Ten thousand people were injured. Ten Thousand dissidents were arrested. Thirty-one dissidents were tried and executed.

Did the Hopkins-Nanjing Center help plan, develop, and carry out a psycho-political operation that resulted in Tiananamon Square? Was Tiananamon Square engineered to get rid of well educated, intelligent students, who might interfere with Council on Foreign Relations plans for taking control of the People's Republic of China?

A group called the The Hopkins-Nanjing Council includes CFR members President George Bush (Honorary Chairman), Ambassador Arthur Hummel (Co-Chairman), and Morris W. Offit (CEO OFFITBANK). The Chairman of the Development committee is Russell S. Passarella, Senior Vice President, of The Chase Manhattan Private Bank. The Chase Manhattan Bank, is run by the Rockefeller Family. David Rockefeller Jr., David Rockefeller Sr., John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV, Rodman Clark Rockefeller, and Nelson Rockefeller (deceased) all belong to the Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations member Lynn Etheridge Davis, CFR member President Clinton's, International Security Advisor, is a Chase Manhattan bank Vice President..14

The Hopkins-Nanjing Partnership are a group of individuals and Foundations who gave money to the SAIS The Hopkins-Nanjing Center. Gifts range from $10,000 to over one million. Council on Foreign Relations member David Rockefeller is listed as a Hopkins-Nanjing "Supporter" for supplying a gift of $10,000 or more. The Council on Foreign Relations directed Ford Foundation is listed as a "Benefactor" who donated between $250,000 and $1,000,000.15

In the 1950s a the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations gave the Council on Foreign Relations $2.5 million grant.[12]16

After World War II covert foreign policy became State Department standard operating procedure. The Ford Foundation became a major player in funding covert activities. In 1948 the Air Force set up Rand Corporation to perform classified research. The Council on Foreign Relations medcine, munitons, food, and media industries had access to the research through their Intelligence Connections. Taxpayer funded research could be easily turned into Council on Foreign Relations member and insider profits.17

The interlocks between the trustees at Rand, and the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations were so numerous that the Reece Committee, a congressional committee tasked with investigating the foundations, listed them in its report (two each for Carnegie and Rockefeller, and three for Ford). In 1952 alone, when the chairman of Rand was also the Ford Foundation president, Ford gave one million dollars to Rand. 18

Conspicuously absent from The Reece Committee report were the links between the Foundations to the Council on Foreign Relations. In his book "A THOUSAND DAYS"(1965), CFR member Arthur Schlesinger, Jr, provides the link. Schlesinger writes "the American Establishment," whose "household deities were Henry L. Stimson and Elihu Root; its present leaders [1965], Robert A. Lovett and John J. McCloy; its front organizations, the Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie Foundations and the Council on Foreign Relations; its organs, the New York Times and Foreign Affairs...."[11]19

Schlesinger's account leaves out the link between CFR foundation directors and officers and US Intelligence agencies. In his book Carroll Quigley, is guilty of the same oversight. In his book TRAGEDY AND HOPE , Quigley writes about the establishment of an American branch of the British Royal Institute of International Affairs. The American branch, is the Council on Foreign Relations. Missing from Quigley's history is that the founding members were also members of the first US intelligence organization, known as the INQUIRY.[a]20

Quigley's first book, The ANGLO-AMERICAN ESTABLISHMENT was written in 1949. No one would publish it until 32 years after Quigley died. Quigley writes, "The [Royal] Institute [of International Affairs] was organized at a joint conference of British and American experts at the Hotel Majestic on 30 May 1919. At the suggestion of Lord Robert Cecil, the chair was given to General Tasker Bliss of the American delegation. We have already indicated that the experts of the British delegation at the Peace Conference were almost exclusively from the Milner Group and Cecil Block. The American group of experts, "the INQUIRY," was manned almost completely by persons from institutions including universities dominated by J.P. Morgan and company."

This is disinformation -- a "tactic of deception" used to shift the readers focus away from more important information. While many of the INQUIRY members were connected to the J.P. Morgan company, they were also the first US Intelligence agents and covert operators. Missing from Quigley's history, is that the INQUIRY was the first American Intelligence organization. The INQUIRY was organized and run by Edward Mandel House, Woodrow Wilson's close political advisor. Missing from Quigley's history is that the INQUIRY drafted most of Wilson's 14 points. The only group that can profit from keeping this information secret is the Council on Foreign Relations. If Council on Foreign Relations members have participated in psycho-political operations focused a American Citizens and weakened America economically so that the CFR controlled international empire could profit they have committed treason. A staggering 5.5 Trillion Dollar Debt is evidence of this betrayal of trust. Shouldn't traitors be tried and executed?21

Since its inception, almost every important figure in American foreign policy, both covert and overt, has been closely involved with the Council on Foreign Relations. The Ford Foundation was deeply involved in covert actions in Europe during the early years of the Cold War, working closely with Marshall Plan (a PSYOP run by CFR members Dean Achenson, Walter Lippmann, and George Kennan) and CIA officials on specific projects. CFR member Richard Bissell was a Ford Foundation staff member in 1953, when he left suddenly to became a special assistant to the director of the CIA.[b]22 When the Congress for Cultural Freedom was exposed as CIA-funded in 1967, Ford took over its funding.[c]23 In the early 1960s, Ford was involved in training Council on Foreign Relations members in Indonesia.[d]24

One such member was McGeorge Bundy. Bundy was not unusual in Council on Foreign Relations circles: Yale degree in 1940, army intelligence during World War II, policy analyst for the Council on Foreign Relations from 1948-49, Harvard dean from 1953-61, special assistant to the President for national security from 1961-66 (during the buildup in Vietnam), president of the Ford Foundation from 1966-79, and with Carnegie from 1990 until his death in 1996.[e]25 His brother William P. Bundy was at the CIA from 1951-61, and edited the CFR journal Foreign Affairs from 1972-84.[f]26

The covert side of Rockefeller Foundation receded after CFR member Nelson Rockefeller's death in 1979. Nelson, with the help of Hoover's FBI, was in charge of all U.S. intelligence in Latin America during World War II. After the war he artfully meshed his spook connections with his far-flung monopoly interests. His associate in Brazil, Col. J. C. King, became CIA chief of clandestine activities in the Western Hemisphere. When Nelson Rockefeller was appointed by CFR member Eisenhower to the National Security Council in 1954, his job was to approve various covert operations. This is when Nelson began his long association with CFR member Henry Kissinger.

During the 1950s, Rockefeller Foundation helped the CIA fund their MK-ULTRA mind control research, and supported early efforts to legitimize Ngo Dinh Diem as the leader of South Vietnam. Cold War heavies CFR member John J. McCloy and Robert A. Lovett were Rockefeller trustees. In 1950, OSS veteran Charles B. Fahs became head of the Foundation's division of humanities. His assistant there, another OSS veteran named Chadbourne Gilpatric, came to Rockefeller Foundation directly from the CIA. [g] 27

Up to 1961 every Secretary of State except Cordell Hull, and James Byrnes, were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. The undersecretaries, almost to a man, were also Council on Foreign Relations members. Secretaries of state have frequently been foundation officers. CFR member Dean Rusk went from the State Department after the war, to the presidency of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1952-60, and then back to State for eight years as secretary. [h] 28 CFR member John Foster Dulles was a trustee at Rockefeller while chairman at Carnegie.29 [i] Other secretaries of state from the foundations included Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Henry L. Stimson, Frank B. Kellogg, and Charles Evans Hughes.30 [j]

In the 1950's Psychological operations, were coordinated by a Governmental agency called the Psychological Strategy Board. The architect of the Psychological Strategy Board was Gordon Gray. Gray had a consultant named Henry Kissinger. Kissinger was the paid political consultant to the Rockefeller family. Gordon Gray, Henry Kissinger, and many members of the Rockefeller family belonged the Council on Foreign Relations. On Thursday 26 July 1951, President Truman would tell the press that the Psychological Strategy board was a part of the Central Intelligence Agency. 31

In the book 1984 Big Brother controlled the people by invading their privacy and using psychological manipulation to control and change reality through conscious deception, deliberate lying, and an official ideology that abounded in contradictions. Council on Foreign Relations and Royal Institute of International Affairs members employ the same techniques to control people -- including their fellow countrymen.

Hadley Cantril and Lloyd Free were Princeton University Social Psychologists; researchers; and members of the intelligence community. Council on Foreign Relations Member Nelson Rockefeller funded them to develop psycho-political policy strategies and techniques. Council on Foreign Relations Member Edward R. Murrow, would, with Rockefeller Foundation Funding conduct a research project to perform a systematic analysis of Nazi radio propaganda techniques and the political use of radio. This study would result in a world wide monitoring and broadcasting Government agency called the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service (FBIS).

The FBIS would become the United States Information Agency (USIA). The USIA was established to achieve US foreign policy by influencing public attitude at home and abroad using psycho-political policy strategies. The USIA Office of Research and reference service prepares data on psychological factors and propaganda problems considered by the Policy Planning Board in formulating psycho-political information policies for the National Security Council.

The Psychological Strategy Board became the renamed super-powered Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). The OCB had a vague ambiguous name that didn't provoke curiosity. It had more members than the Psychological Strategy board. It had the same mission, to use psychological strategy, propaganda, and mass media, to manipulate huge groups of individuals. It had a psychological warfare machine -- the United States Information Agency at its disposal. The USIA would be responsible for foreign policy propaganda for the NSC.

The National Security Council is responsible for recommending national security policy. The President for having the policy approved. The Operations Coordinating Board for coordinating interdepartmental aspects of operational policy plans to insure their timely and coordinated execution.

The National Security Council's recommended national security policy is the de facto foreign policy of the United States.The Department of State's Policy Planning Board scripted the policy for the NSC. The USIA Office of Research and Reference service prepared data on psychological factors and propaganda problems. The Policy Planning Board used the data in formulating psycho-political information policies for the NSC. In 1955 the Director of the USIA became a voting member of the Operations Coordinating board; USIA representatives were invited to attend meetings of the NSC Planning Board; and the USIA Director was invited to Cabinet meetings. 32

From 1950-1953 CFR member Nitze directed the Department of State Policy Planning Board. Nitze and crew scripted psycho-political operations for the National Security Council.33 SAIS Chairman and Dean Paul Wolfowitz, . also directed the Department of State Policy Planning Board. Wolfowitz was undersecretary of defense during CFR member George Bush's administration and served as assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs. He authored PRESERVING PEACE IN THE NUCLEAR AGE (1983) and numerous articles on political science, economics and defense issues. Are the books, documentaries, and articles produced by SAIS faculty and alumni Department of State propaganda meant to trick, manipulate, and brainwash Americans into accepting Council on Foreign Relations doctrine?

The latest warnings from the Council on Foreign Relations members who planed and directed a PSYOP called Mutually ASSured Destruction (MAD) include warnings of some rogue nation terrorizing the United States with a thermonuclear device. In 1994 CFR member William Clinton's administration began using this threat as an excuse to return America to a state of perpetual National Security. Such a state is necessary for the Federal Reserve board to legally control interest rates. If a nuclear tragedy ever happens it will be due to a Council on Foreign Relations run covert operation.34

On 19 February 1961, President John F. Kennedy issued a Statement abolishing the Operations Coordinating Board:

"I am today issuing an Executive Order abolishing the Operations Coordinating Board. This Board was used in the last Administration for work which we now plan to do in other ways. This action is part of our program for strengthening the responsibility of the individual departments. First, we will center responsibility for much of the Board's work in the Secretary of State. He expects to rely particularly on the Assistant Secretaries in charge of regional bureaus, and they in turn will consult closely with other departments and agencies. This will be our ordinary rule of continuing coordination of our work in relation to a country or area."

Second, insofar as the Operations Coordinating Board - as a descendent of the old Psychological Strategy Board - was concerned with the impact of our actions on foreign opinion - our "image" abroad - we expect its work to be done in a number of ways; in my own office, in the State Department, under Mr. Murrow of USIA, and by all who are concerned with the spirit and meaning of our actions in foreign policy. We believe that appropriate coordination can be assured here without extensive formal machinery.

Third, insofar as the Operations Coordinating Board served as an instrument for ensuring action at the President's direction, we plan to continue its work by maintaining direct communication with the responsible agencies, so that everyone will know what I have decided, while I in turn keep fully informed of the actions taken to carry out decisions. We of course expect that the policy of the White House will be the policy of the Executive Branch as a whole, and we shall take such steps as are needed to ensure this result.

I expect the senior officials who served as formal members of the Operations Coordinating Board will still keep in close and informal touch with each other on problems of common interest. Mr. Bromley Smith, who has been the Executive Officer of the Operations Coordinating Board, will continue to work with my Special Assistant, Mr. McGeorge Bundy [Bundy was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations ], in following up on White House decisions in the area of national security. In these varied ways we intend that the net result shall be a strengthening of the process by which our policies are effectively coordinated and carried out, throughout the Executive Branch.""

Kennedy's executive order didn't dissolve the Operations Coordinating Board, it made it invisible. The OCB became an ad hoc committee called the "Special Group." In The CIA File, author David Wise writes, "In The Invisible Government, published in 1964, Thomas B. Ross and I disclosed for the first time the existence of the "Special Group," the interagency government committee customarily cited by intelligence officials as the principal mechanism for control of covert operations. The special Group was also known during the Eisenhower years as the 54/12 Group and has been periodically renamed as the 303 committee - after a room number in the Executive Office Buildings - and during the Nixon administration, it acquired the name "Forty Committee. "... It was this committee to which Allen Dulles was referring when he wrote in a now famous statement, 'The facts are that the CIA has never carried out any action of a political nature, given any support of any nature to any persons, potentates or movements, political or otherwise, without appropriate approval at high political level in our government outside the CIA. '" 35

In 1975, Philip Agee, in the CIA DIARY, links the "Special Group" to the Operations Coordinating Board. A box on an organization chart writes, "Operations Co-ordination Board (OCB) (later renamed the 54-12 Group, The Special Group, the 303 group and the 40 Committee) Director of Central Intelligence, Under Secretary of State, Deputy Secretary of Defense are ad hoc members. "36

Air Force Intelligence Officer L. Fletcher Prouty writes, "During the Eisenhower years the NSC, which at times was a large and unwieldy body, was reduced for special functions and responsibilities to smaller staffs. For purposes of administering the CIA among others, the NSC Planning Board was established. The men who actually sat as working members of this smaller group were not the Secretaries themselves. These men are heads of vast organizations and have many demands upon their time. This means that even if they could attend most meetings, the essential criteria for leadership and continuity of the decision making-process simply could not be guaranteed. Thus the sub-committee or special group idea was born, and these groups were made up of men especially designated for the task. In the case of the Special Group, called by many codes during the years, such as "Special Group 5412/2," it consists of a designated representative of the President, of the Secretary of State, of the Secretary of Defense, and the Director of The Central Intelligence Agency in person. This dilution of the level of responsibility made it possible for the CIA to assume more and more power as the years went by, as new administrations established their own operating procedures, and the control intended by the law became changed."37 Prouty is understating what "this dilution did" -- it made it impossible to dissolve the Special Group.

Senator, isn't it time to dissolve the "Special Group?" Isn't it time to investigate the Council on Foreign Relations?


[1] Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) 1740 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA,

[2] Who's Who 1994, pg. 3076; Biographical notes courtesy of the City of Vancouver, Washington, which presented the 1995 George C. Marshall Lecture by Paul H. Nitze. EDF Membership 1-800-684-3322 Environmental Defense Fund ( 257 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) 1740 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA,

[6] Ibid,

[7] Ibid,

[8] Ibid,

[9] Ibid,

[10] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 165-166

[11] The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Public Opinion, May/June 1989, pg 61

[12] Ibid, Contents pg 61

[13] Ibid, pg 61

[14] Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) 1740 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA,,

[15] Ibid

[16] G. William Domhoff, The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America (New York: Vintage Books, 1971), p. 115. See also Leonard Silk and Mark Silk, The American Establishment (New York: Avon Books- Discus, 1981), notably pp. 104-52 about the Ford Foundation and pp. 183-225 about the Council on Foreign Relations.

[17] Rene Wormser, Foundations: Their Power and Influence (Sevierville TN: Covenant House Books, 1993), 412 pages. First published in 1958 by Devin-Adair in New York, and reprinted in 1977 by Angriff Press., pp. 65-66.

[18] Ibid

[19] Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965), p. 127, as quoted in Laurence H. Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977), p. 63.

[20] Quigley, Tragedy and Hope p. 952; Footnotes [a]-[j] From NameBase NewsLine, No. 15, October-December 1996 Philanthropists at War

[21] Quigley, Carroll, The Anglo American Establishment, 1981, Books in Focus, NY, NY pg 182-183

[22] Sallie Pisani, The CIA and the Marshall Plan (Lawrence KS: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 188 pages; Eric Thomas Chester, Covert Network: Progressives, the International Rescue Committee, and the CIA (Armonk NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995), 265 pages.

[23] Peter Coleman, The Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar Europe (New York: The Free Press, 1989), pp. 224-27

[24] David Ransom, "Ford Country: Building an Elite for Indonesia." In Steve Weissman, ed., The Trojan Horse: A Radical Look at Foreign Aid (Palo Alto CA: Ramparts Press, 1975), pp. 93-116.

[25] Associated Press, "JFK aide Bundy dies at 77," as published in Washington Times, 17 September 1996, p. A3; Who's Who in America, 47th edition, 1992-93.

[26] Who's Who in America, 43rd edition, 1984-85.

[27] Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett, Thy Will Be Done -- The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil (New York: Harper Collins, 1995), p. 221, 265-69.

[28] Who's Who in America, 43rd edition, 1984-85.

[29] Who's Who in America, 26th edition, 1950-51.

[30] Ferdinand Lundberg, The Rich and the Super-Rich (New York: Bantam Books, 1969). Chapter 10, titled "Philanthropic Vistas: The Tax-Exempt Foundations" (pp. 465-530), describes the Patman investigations pg. 482-483

[31] Harry S. Truman, Public Papers of Harry S. Truman, US Government Printing Office 1963, 1951 July 27 [172] pg. 427.

[32] Henderson, John W.,The United States Information Agency, 1966, pg. 52-53 Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, New York, Washington, London, Book 14 in the Praeger Library of US Government Departments and Agencies series, consulting editors Ernest S. Griffith, former Dean and Professor Emeritus, School Of International Service, American University. Hugh Langdon Elsbree, former Chairmen, Department of Political Science, Dartmouth College. Both editors are formed directors, Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress.

[33] Who's Who 1994, pg 3076

[34] Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) 1740 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA,

[35] Robert L. Borosage and John Marks, The CIA File, Grossman Publishers A Division of Viking Press, 1976 pgs. 12-13

[36] Philip Agee, Inside the Company CIA Diary, Stonehill Publishing Co., 38 East 57 Street, New York, NY, 1975 pg 632

[37] Prouty, L. Fletcher Col., US Air Force Retired, The Secret Team, The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the United States and the World, copyright 1973 by L. Fletcher Prouty, Ballantine Books, Inc., 201 East 50th Street, New York, NY, First Printing 1974 pg 3-5