In early 1970's Council on Foreign Relations leaders Zbigniew Brzezinski, and David Rockefeller created the Trilateral Commission. It included 60 members from Japan, 60 from Western Europe and 205 Americans. Almost all the Americans belong to the Council on Foreign Relations.

On 22 May 1996, Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, delivered the Commencement Address at Johns Hopkins University. Ogata is a Japanese Trilateral Commission member. Ogata, said.

"...I wish in particular to note President Woodrow Wilson, the founding father of the League of Nations, and the Japanese internationalist thinker Dr. Nitobe Anazo, who served as its Secretary General in the early 1920s...SAIS is the nation's second oldest graduate school of international relations, founded by Paul Nitze and Christian Herter in 1943... "

Ogata is misinforming her audience. A group of Americans called the INQUIRY working with a British "Secret Society" called the "Milner Group" drafted most of Wilson's Fourteen points, including the League of Nations. The INQUIRY and "Milner group" attended the Paris Peace conference and traded off most of the Fourteen Points to establish the League of Nations. Wilson was so disturbed by the INQUIRY's betrayal he suffered a stroke and physical collapse and refused to speak to his influential advisor INQUIRY member Edward House ever again. The American people turned down the League of Nations, because they did not want to belong to an organization that could force America to go to war and whose intent was to be an international police force. The INQUIRY and the Milner Group members would be founding fathers of the Council on Foreign Relations and Royal Institute of International Affairs. Christian Herter was an INQUIRY member, and Council on Foreign Relations founding father.

In his book "The ANGLO-AMERICAN ESTABLISHMENT" Quigley writes,

"One Wintry Afternoon in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole. For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy.

The three men who were thus engaged were already well known in England. The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire builder and the most important person in South Africa. The second was William T. Stead, the famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential advisor of King Edward VII and King George V.

The details of this important conversation will be examined later. At present we need only point out that the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan for organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as "The Society of the Elect," and an outer circle, to be known as "The Association of Helpers." Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a "Junta of Three." The leader was to be Rhodes, and the Junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner. In accordance with this decision, Milner was added to the society by Stead shortly after the meeting we have described." 1

Of the Secret Societies goals and methods of operation Quigley writes, "The goals which Rhodes and Milner sought and the methods by which they hoped to achieve them were so similar by 1902 that the two are almost indistinguishable. Both sought to unite the world, and above all the English-speaking world, in a federal structure around Britain. Both felt that this goal could best be achieved by a secret band of men united to one another by devotion to the common cause and by personal loyalty to one another. Both felt that this band should pursue its goal by secret political and economic influence behind the scenes and by the control of journalistic, educational, and propaganda agencies..."2

Propaganda, is the effort to alter the picture to which men respond, to substitute one social pattern for another. Propaganda is used to create false reality worlds using sleight of mind. Psycho-political operations are propaganda campaigns. Strategic psycho-political operations focus propaganda at powerful individuals, or small groups of people capable of influencing public opinion or the government of a particular country. Tactical psycho-political operations focus propaganda at the masses by interference in specific events, their comments, and their appeals through mass communication media ( i.e. newspapers, radio, television, textbooks, educational material, art, entertainment, etc. ). Both forms of propaganda are used to manipulate public opinion to attain foreign policy goals in a given period.3

During its early stages the "Secret Societies" propaganda efforts were largely Strategic. Quigley writes, "[the groups] influence was not exercised by acting directly on public opinion, since the Milner Group never intended to influence events by acting through instruments of mass propaganda, but rather hoped to work on the opinions of the small group of "important people," who in turn could influence wider and wider circles of persons. This was the basis on which the Milner Group itself was constructed; it was the theory behind the Rhodes Scholarships; it was the theory behind "THE ROUND TABLE" [magazine] and the Royal Institute of International Affairs; it was the theory behind the efforts to control All Souls, New College, and Oxford University..." 4

Quigley is misinforming the reader. The group tried to influence events by acting directly on public opinion from the start. "Secret Society" founding father William T. Stead, was"the famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day". "Secret Society" member Rudyard Kipling was a noted author. Both were apt practitioners of the use of mass propaganda. Their "instrument" was the written word which limited the size and categories of the target population. The targeted group had to be literate and able to afford the written material. People read at different rates, the message could not be broadcast to masses of people simultaneously. The written word was a record that could be reviewed and discussed allowing "tactics of deception" to be discovered, and making the discovery harder to deny.

The limits of the propaganda "instrument"; the "Secret Society's" small membership; and the upper class status of "Secret Society" members, made strategic operations focused at influential individuals a more effective propaganda approach. With the advent of radio, it became much easier to influence the masses. The masses no longer had to be literate. Large groups could be reached at one time. The target audience need only sit and listen while their reality worlds were shaped by a "Secret Society" psycho-political operation. The only evidence the audience had of the propaganda experience were the pictures left in their heads. The next time you visit the public library, try and find some copies of Rudyard Kipling's works. A logo is imprinted on the cover and cover pages of his books. Kipling's (1865-1936) logo was a Swastika.

Of the Secret Societies successful propaganda achievements Quigley writes :

"This organization [the Rhodes secret society] has been able to conceal its existence quite successfully, and many of its most influential members, satisfied to possess the reality rather than the appearance of power, are unknown even to close students of British history. This is the more surprising when we learn that one of the chief methods by which this Group works has been through propaganda. It plotted the Jameson Raid of 1895; it caused the Boer War of 1899-1902; it set up and controls the Rhodes Trust; it created the Union of South Africa in 1906-1910; it established the South African periodical The State in 1908; it founded the British Empire periodical The Round Table in 1910, and this remains the mouthpiece of the Group; it has been the most powerful single influence in All Souls, Balliol, and New Colleges at Oxford for more than a generation; it has controlled the Times for more than fifty years, with the exception of the three years 1919-1922; it publicized the idea of the name "British Commonwealth of Nations" in the period 1908-1918; it was the chief influence in Lloyd George's war administration in 1917-19 and dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919; it had a great deal to do with the formation and management of the League of Nations and of the system of mandates; it founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1919 and still controls it; it was one of the chief influences on British policy toward Ireland, Palestine, and India in the period 1917-1945; it was a very important influence on the policy of appeasement of Germany during the years 1920-1940; and it controlled and still controls, to a very considerable extent, the sources and writing of the history of British Imperial and foreign policy since the Bore War."

In light of Quigley's revelation that the Secret Societies chief operating method was propaganda, it is not at all surprising that the group has concealed its existence. Many of Secret Societies members, especially those in the inner circle, were skilled covert operators. The Joint Chiefs of Staff DoD Publication 1 (1987) Glossary Department of Defense Military Associated Terms defines:

"COVERT OPERATIONS: (DoD, Interpol, Inter-American Defense Board) Operations which are so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. They differ from clandestine operations in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation."5

The Rhodes "Secret Society" psycho-political operations were planned and executed to conceal its existence. Rhodes "Secret Society" members would infiltrate a group and create animosity between the group and other groups, or turn animosity inwards. Concealment was a way of avoiding retaliation from the groups the "Secret Society" tried to weaken and destroy. Concealment was a Rhodes "Secret Society" strategy of survival.

Regarding the Secret Societies evolution, Quigley writes, "The creation of this secret society was not a matter of a moment...During its first decade or so [1890-1900] it was called the secret society of Cecil Rhodes" or "the dream of Cecil Rhodes." In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as "Milner's Kindergarten" (1901-1910) and as "the Round Table Group" (1910-1920)....""6

Between 1910-1915 the Secret Society evolved into an international group of co-conspirators. Round Table Groups were set up in seven nations: Britain, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, India, and the United States. Quigley, writes, "The plan of procedure was... to form local groups of influential men to agitate for imperial federation and to keep in touch with these groups by correspondence and by the circulation of a periodical." The periodical was called THE ROUND TABLE, the same name given the groups. The covert operations were still primarily strategical. They were designed to manipulate and influence the opinion of powerful individuals who in turn would direct policy to conform with the Secret Societies aims.7

In 1920 the Secret Society evolved again. The Round Table Groups became the Institutes for International Affairs. Quigley writes, "The Institute [of International Affairs] was organized at a joint conference of British and American experts at the Hotel Majestic on 30 May 1919. At the suggestion of Lord Robert Cecil, the chair was given to General Tasker Bliss of the American delegation [of the Paris Peace Conference]. We have already indicated that the experts of the British delegation at the [Paris] Peace Conference were almost exclusively from the Milner Group and Cecil Bloc. The American group of experts, "the INQUIRY" was manned almost as completely by persons from institutions (including universities) dominated by J.P. Morgan and Company. This was not an accident. Moreover, the Milner Group has always had very close relationships with the associates of J. P. Morgan and with the various branches of the Carnegie Trust. These relationships, which were merely examples of the closely knit ramifications of international financial capitalism, were probably based on the financial holdings controlled by the Milner Group through the Rhodes Trust. The term "international financier" can be applied with full justice to several members of the Milner Group."

The "closely knit ramifications of international financial capitalism" are the Secret Society members munitions, medicine, food, and media industries. Industries that profit most during periods of unrest, during times of war. Profits that provided the rationalization and means for a group of greedy, avaricious, scoundrels to create and maintain a state of eternal war. A state maintained by creating tension between different groups of people through the use of psycho-political operations. Resulting in an economy of unrest in which the Institute of International Affairs members industries of war would reap obscene profits. Profits paid for from the misery, death, and suffering of the countless victims of war and persecution that resulted from their ignoble efforts.

Efforts that coined new words of war, hatred, and death. Words like race, ethnic, apartheid, genocide, holocaust, racial-cleansing, mutually assured destruction, and nuclear terrorism. Efforts resulting in a national security policy condemned since the Dark Ages that held the enemy's civilian population hostage, threatening the wholesale slaughter of non-combatants. Efforts that created false reality worlds filled with "enemies" their fellow countrymen would willingly fight. Efforts attacking the faith, family structure, and nationality, of their fellow countrymen. Efforts that rationalize, legalize, and encourage the murder of ones own child as a victimless act and a constitutional right to privacy.

Quigley tells us, "The Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) is nothing but the Milner Group "writ large." It was founded by the Group, has been consistently controlled by the Group, and to this day is the "Milner Group" in its widest aspect. It is the legitimate child of the Round Table organization, just as the latter was the legitimate child of the "Closer Union" movement organized in South Africa in 1907...The new organization was intended to be a wider aspect of the "Milner Group," the plan being to influence the leaders of thought through The Round Table [magazine] and to influence a wider group through the RIIA."

The Institute of International Affairs differed from the Round Table in at least two significant ways:

1. The Institute of International Affairs, was not a "Secret Organization." It had a name, headquarters, and membership list. The seven Round Table Groups became seven Institutes of International Affairs. The British Group was called the Royal Institute of International Affairs. The American group would change its name within its first year because of anti-British sentiment that followed in the wake of World War I. The American group distanced itself from the British group by becoming the Council on Foreign Relations.

2. The Institute of International Affairs propaganda methods would be tactical ( meant to influence the mass public opinion) as well as strategic ( meant to influence leaders).

On 22 May 1996, when Trilateral Commission member Sadako Ogata credited Woodrow Wilson as the founding father of the League of Nations she participated in a covert operation that had been ongoing for 77 years. The League of Nations wasn't founded by a man it was founded by an organization, the Rhodes Secret Society. Two groups played key roles. They were the groups of British and American experts from the Paris Peace Conference that met at Hotel Majestic on 30 May 1919 and founded the Institute of International Affairs.

In her speech Ogata mentions one of the Institute of International Affairs founding fathers -- SAIS founding father Christian Herter. Quigley, identified the members of the American Delegation as the INQUIRY. Quigley fails to identify the American INQUIRY members. Quigley fails to mention the INQUIRY was the first US government chartered central intelligence agency. Christian Herter was a member of the INQUIRY.

Roland Burrage Dixon was another INQUIRY member. Dixon attended the Paris Peace Conference. Dixon was a founding father of the Institute of International Affairs. Dixon was the INQUIRY ethnologist. Ethnology is the branch of comparative anthropology that studies the cultures of contemporary, or recent, societies or language groups. Dixon was interested in the concept of "race." In 1919 the concept of "race" was not well established. Dixon undertook a study to provide a scientific basis for the term. The result was published in 1923 as "THE RACIAL HISTORY OF MAN." Dixon's work attempts to classify the "races" of mankind on the basis of the shape of the skull. Dixon was an insatiable investigator. His field work included the studies of primitive peoples in Asia, Oceania, and North and South America. Did Dixon's studies included removing the skull from the body to make it easier to study?8

Felix Frankfurter suggested the idea for the INQUIRY to Woodrow Wilson Frankfurter was the first Jewish associate in the "eastern establishment" law firm Hornblower, Byrne, Miller and Potter (1906). Shortly thereafter he went to work for Henry L. Stimson at the office of the United States Attorney General. Stimson was President Taft's secretary of war. He appointed Frankfurter to the Bureau of Insular Affairs which had jurisdiction over American territorial possessions. When Wilson became President, Frankfurter stayed with the War Department. Stimson would become a Council on Foreign Relations member.9

Frankfurter was one of the first contributing editors to a paper, called The NEW REPUBLIC. Walter Lippmann ran The NEW REPUBLIC. In 1917 Walter Lippmann was 28 years old. Lippmann joined the War Department as a special assistant to Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Baker, told Lippmann to report to Colonel Edward M. House, to discuss a secret matter. House was the close friend and confidant of President Wilson. Lippmann met House in front of the State War-Navy Building on the west side of the White-House. The two strolled down Pennsylvania Avenue. House offered Lippmann a job in an entirely new executive agency that would be a planning organization to prepare American policy for President Wilson. House offered Lippmann a job in the INQUIRY, the first central intelligence agency.10

Central to Lippmann's strategy of achieving government and international relations policy aims were large scale psycho-political operations aimed at the masses. The early work of Lippmann, and another leading pioneer in the field of psychological warfare, Harold Lasswell, were funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. Not coincidentally the governments national security campaigns usually overlapped the commercial ambitions of Council on Foreign Relations and Institute of International Affairs controlled industries. The Carnegie Corporation and Ford Foundation were principal secondary sources of large-scale communication research funding, operating in close coordination with government propaganda and intelligence programs.11

Lippmann was the INQUIRY's secretary. Lippmann became the INQUIRY's chief propaganda and intelligence specialist, and then its director. Lippmann shaped psychological strategy during the war. After the war Lippmann played a major role in the integration of psycho-political operations and psychological strategy into the social sciences in the field of communications research. Lippmann's major works are "PUBLIC OPINION" (1922), and "THE PHANTOM PUBLIC (1925)." Both works investigate the impact of mass communication on society. Both works are based on Lippmann's INQUIRY experiences.12

Chapter I, of Lippmann's book, PUBLIC OPINION is titled "The World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads." Lippmann, writes,

"This then, will be the clue to our inquiry. We shall assume that what each man does is based not on direct and certain knowledge, but on pictures made by himself or given to him. If his atlas tells him that the world is flat he will not sail near what he believes to be the edge of our planet for fear of falling off. If his maps include a fountain of eternal youth, a Ponce de Leon will go in quest of it. If someone digs up yellow dirt that looks like gold, he will for a time act exactly as if he had found gold. The way in which the world is imagined determines at any particular moment what men will do. It does not determine what they will achieve. It determines their effort, their feelings, their hopes, not their accomplishments and results. The very men who most loudly proclaim their "materialism" and their contempt for "ideologues," the Marxian communists, place their entire hope on what? On the formulation by propaganda of a class-conscious group. But what is propaganda, if not the effort to alter the picture to which men respond, to substitute one social pattern for another? What is class consciousness but a way of realizing the world? National consciousness but another way? And Professor Giddings' consciousness of kind [ i.e. stereotypes ], but a process of believing that we recognize among the multitude certain ones marked as our kind?"13

Lippmann's conclusion is,

"I argue that representative government, either in what is ordinarily called politics, or in industry, cannot be worked successfully, no matter what the basis of election, unless there is an independent, expert organization for making the unseen facts intelligible to those who have to make the decisions...My conclusion is that public opinions must be organized for the press if they are to be sound, not by the press as is the case today. This organization I conceive to be in the first instance the task of a political science that has won its proper place as formulator, in advance of real decision, instead of apologist, critic, or reporter after the decision has been made..."14

Lippmann is advocating the creation of a totalitarian state. If one small group is permitted to control public opinion, that small group can use their power to benefit the aims of the group rather than the public at large. People's actions are strongly influenced by their knowledge base. People act on their beliefs. By corrupting a persons knowledge base you can manipulate their actions.

The Rhodes "Secret-Society", and evolving groups, is the organization Lippmann advocated. Lippmann was an American Round Table Group member since 1915, and attended the meeting at the Hotel Majestic in 1919 that established the the Institute of International Affairs. Lippmann was a founding father of the American branch the Council on Foreign Relations. The Council on Foreign Relations would control left wing, right wing, and conservative media using of "Tactics of Deception" as a sleight of mind to corrupt a persons knowledge base. Council on Foreign Relations members in an ad hoc committee called the "Special Group" and through a vast intragovernmental undercover infrastructure called the "Secret Team" would plan and coordinate massive psychological operations scripted using "Tactics of Deception." American citizens would be manipulated to accept the particular climate of opinion the groups were seeking to achieve in the world.

Lippmann, Stimson, Frankfurter, Herter, and House were members of the American Round Table Group. A group that carried out well scripted and planned strategic psycho-political operations to manipulate President Woodrow Wilson to enter the war. British and Canadian Round Table Group members helped script, plan, and co-ordinate those operations. Americans didn't want to enter the war. The members of the American, British, and Canadian Round Table Groups deceived and manipulated the American president into betraying his country's trust. Isn't that treason?

If a group is organized on a dictatorial basis; with so close an identity between the group and its policies and the governmental polices of the country in which it exists; that the group and the government constitute an indistinguishable unit; and that group suppresses all opposition to such a group; then a totalitarian dictatorship exists. If the people can not use the Executive, Judicial or Congressional Branches of its government to carry out their wishes and enforce their laws then they have lost control of their government. Has this happened to the American people?

Title-50 War and National Defense § 783 states -

"It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to combine, conspire, or agree with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to the establishment within the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship, the direction and control of which is to be vested in, or exercised by or under the domination of control of, any foreign government."

The Council on Foreign Relations is a branch of an international group of co-conspirators that includes the Institutes of International Affairs and the Institutes of Pacific Relations. Do Foreign nationals belonging to this group have a more powerful say in determining the destiny of the American people then the American people do? Do the Americans belonging to this group have a more powerful say in determining the destiny of Foreign nationals than do the countries native inhabitants? If so, this is totalitarianism on a global scale.

Lippmann presents a graphic view of what a society controlled by an "independent, expert organization" would become. It is presented as a preface to his book, contained in a quote from the Republic of Plato, Book Seven,

"Behold! human beings living in a sort of underground den, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all across the den; they have been here from their childhood, and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them; for the chains are arranged in such a manner as to prevent them from turning round their heads. At a distance above and behind them the light of a fire is blazing, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have before them, over which they show the puppets.

I see, he said.

And do you see, I said, men passing along the wall carrying vessels, which appear over the wall; also figures of men and animals, made of wood and stone and various materials; and some of the prisoners, as you would expect, are talking, and some of them are silent.

This is a strange image, he said, and they are strange prisoners.

Like ourselves, I replied; and they see only their own shadows, or the shadows of one another, which the fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave?

True, he said: how could they see anything but the shadows if the were never allowed to move their heads?

And of the objects which are being carried in like manner they would see only the shadows?

Yes, he said.

And if they were able to talk with one another, would they not suppose that they were naming what was actually before therm?"15

A society controlled by an "independent, expert organization," arranging chains of bondage from childhood by corrupting the societies knowledge base, and deciding what shadows to project on the wall, would be a society of prisoners that couldn't use their heads to act in their own best interest. They would become a society of slaves living in a realm of fear.

Isn't it time to investigate the Council on Foreign Relations, the Institutes of International Affairs, and the Institutes of Pacific Relations?


[1] Quigley, Carroll (1910-1977), The Anglo-American Establishment, From Rhodes to Cliveden, 1981, Books In Focus, NY, NY pg. 3 [ Quigley footnotes this information to W. T. Stead, The Last Will and Testament of Cecil Rhodes (London, 1902); Sir Francis Wylie's three articles in the American Oxonian (April 1944), XXXI, 65-69; (July 1944), XXXI, 129-138; and (January 1945), XXXII, 1-11; F. Aydelotte, The American Rhodes Scholars (Princeton, 1946); and the biographies and memoirs of the men mentioned.

[2] Quigley, Carroll (1910-1977), The Anglo-American Establishment, From Rhodes to Cliveden, 1981, Books In Focus, NY, NY pg.49 [ Quigley footnotes Cecil Headlam, ed., The Milner Papers, 1897-1905 (2 vols. London, 1931-1933), II, 412-413; the unpublished material is at New College, Oxford, in Milner papers, XXXVIII, ii, 200]

[3] Pollock, Daniel C Project Director & Editors De Mclaurin,Ronald, Rosenthal, Carl F., Skillings, Sarah A., The Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application Volume One, Pamphlet No. 725-7-2, DA Pam 525-7-2, Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 1 April 1976 Vol 2 pg 825 - Ways and Means of US Ideological Expansion, By A. Valyuzhenich, bio lists him as a soviet analyst; no further information available -- the article was printed in International Affairs (Moscow) magazine February 1971, pp. 63-68;

[4] Quigley, Carroll (1910-1977), The Anglo-American Establishment, From Rhodes to Cliveden, 1981, Books In Focus, NY, NY pg. pg. 113

[5] GLOSSARY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MILITARY AND ASSOCIATED TERMS, SOURCE: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Department of Defense, JCS Pub 1 (1987), NOTE: The initials following each item identify the source of the definition. DOD is the Department of Defense; IADB is the Inter-American Defense Board; I stand for Interpol; and NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Alliance.

[6] Quigley, Carroll (1910-1977), The Anglo-American Establishment, From Rhodes to Cliveden, 1981, Books In Focus, NY, NY pg. 4

[7] Quigley, Carroll (1910-1977), The Anglo-American Establishment, From Rhodes to Cliveden, 1981, Books In Focus, NY, NY pg 117

[8] Dictionary of American Biography, Volume IX, Supplement One, Edited by Harris E. Starr, Supplement Two, Edited by Robert Livingston Schuyler, Edward T. James, Associate, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY pg 252; Dixon, Roland B., The Racial History of Man, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY published March 1923

[9] Jackson, Kenneth T., Markoe, Karen E., Markoe, Arnold Editors, Dictionary of American Biography, S Charles Schribner's Son's, Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Maxwell Macmillan International, New York, Oxford, Singapore, Sydney, 1994 Supplement 7, 1961-1965, pgs 260-261 -- besides Frankfurter, and Lippmann other commentators included Herbert Croly, and Francis Hakett; George J.A. O'Toole, Honorable Treachery, A History of US Intelligence, Espionage, and Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA, A Morgan Entrekin Book The Atlantic Monthly Press, New York (1991) pgs 301; Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century, Boston: Little Brown, 1980 p. 425

[10] George J.A. O'Toole, Honorable Treachery, A History of US Intelligence, Espionage, and Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA, A Morgan Entrekin Book The Atlantic Monthly Press, New York (1991) pgs 301; Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century, Boston: Little Brown, 1980 p. 127.

[11] Simpson, Christopher, Science of Coercion - Communication Research & Psychological Warfare 1945-1960, Oxford University Press, NY 1994 pg 3, 9

[12] Simpson, Christopher, Science of Coercion - Communication Research & Psychological Warfare 1945-1960, Oxford University Press, NY 1994 pg 17

[13] Lippmann, Walter PUBLIC OPINION, Harcourt, Brace and Co., NY, 1922 pgs 25-26

[14] Lippmann, Walter PUBLIC OPINION, Harcourt, Brace and Co., NY, 1922 pg 31-32

[15] Lippmann, Walter PUBLIC OPINION, Harcourt, Brace and Co., NY, 1922, unnumbered page following dedication to Faye Lippmann and proceeding Table of Contents pg ix, translation credited to Jowett