Statistics of Democide
Chapter 1: Summary and Conclusions [Why Democide?...]
Other Democide Related Documents On This Site
I list in Table 12.1 the relevant estimates, sources, and calculations. The estimates are better for Russia than the other suspected megamurderers, Mexico and North Korea. Much less guessing and calculation is involved and sources do give the largest estimates that contribute to the final democide figure. However, the mid-value upon which I determine Russia's megamurder status is very close to 1,000,000 (line 124) and very sensitive to the few component democides. The largest of these is an alleged democide of 500,000 Central Asian Turks (line 75). This is from Arnold Toynbee, who admits that the toll is speculative. I could find no other sources for this democide other than the one he cites,
Another large democide component is that calculated for the Armenian irregulars with Russian forces when they invaded Turkey. These irregulars no doubt massacred Moslem Turks and Kurds in retaliation for the Turk massacres of Armenians reported in Chapter 5.
Other figures are given by the Professor Emin, a statistician, in his book on Turkey in the war, which enables me to calculate the massacre's total (line 101), which I get as 128,000 Muslims killed. In consolidating this with the 600,000 figure I very conservatively raise it to only 150,000 (near half what the average of these two estimates would be) to accept that there may be some value to the larger figure and to take account of other massacres that occurred in Turkey and the Caucasus by Armenian-Russian regular and irregular troops. Still, only one possibly good source and one very questionable one underlies this estimate.
A third large democide component is the toll among Russian held POWs during the First World War. The lethal conditions that the POWs were imprisoned under are well described from personal experience by Brandstrom
Finally, there are the estimates for those Germans that died in their deportation from Wolbynia (Volhynia) during the war (lines 58 to 59). From 25,000 to 140,000 Germans lost their lives in these deportations, a number whose huge magnitude should not be lost among the much larger figures discussed previously. Yet this range depends on just two independent and inconsistent estimates.
All this makes the acceptance of the final democide figures for Russia much more conjectural than for any of the megamurderers, such as Pakistan, Cambodia, or Turkey, and only sufficient to indict her regime for megamurder.
* From the pre-publisher edited manuscript of Chapter 12 in R.J. Rummel, Statistics of Democide, 1997. For full reference to Statistics of Democide, the list of its contents, figures, and tables, and the text of its preface, click book.
1. Czaplicka (1918, pp. 16-17).
2. See Sachar (1969, p. 114).
3. I calculate the percentage from figures given by McCarthy (1983, p. 138).
4. Brandstrom (1929).
5. Speed (1990).
6. See Centi-Kilo Murderers, Table 14.1d, lines 1934-1939f, for the Kerensky regime; and Rummel (1990) for the Soviets.