contents actively under preparation (2/22/98)


comments by Patrick C. Ryan (3/8/98)


However, major impediments stand in the way of interpreting Appaliunas as a Luwian expression meaning "father lion": 1) in the IE languages closely related to Hittite (including Luwian, Palaic), the normal term for ‘father' is atta (IE atta); interestingly, however, Greek has áppa, "father" (IE appa) and páppa (IE pap[p]a, "father") as well as tatâ (IE tata) though not *átta, all meaning "father". Obviously, IE has both possibilities.

Since IE has both appa and atta, I believe we can provisionally assume that some sub-dialect of Luwian, from which the epithet might come, had *appa for "father".

I do not happen to believe that the term employed in many IE languages for "lion" (*lewi(n)-) is a borrowing from Semitic (cf. Hebrew la:yish, "lion") principally because the IE forms show -n in most instances; and because I cannot conceive of the early IE's residing in an area totally without large felines, obviating their need to borrow a word for the concept with which they were already familiar

I do not believe -liuna-s can reasonably be interpreted except as a reflex of *lewin-, whether it is IE or a borrowing from a nearby Semitic source.


Artemis of Ephesus

return to Animals of Creation (Part Two)


Allen, Richard Hinckley. 1963. Star Names - Their Lore and Meaning. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Black, Jeremy and Green, Anthony. 1996. Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Austin. University of Texas Press.

Bonnet, Hans. 1971. Reallexikon der ägyptischen Religionsgeschichte. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter

Brugmann, Karl. 1972 (1888). A Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic Languages. 5 vol. 2nd reprint. Varanasi, India: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office

Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1969 [1904]. The Gods of the Egyptians - or Studies in Egyptian Mythology. 2 vol. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Eberhard,Wolfram. 1996. A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols — Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought. London/New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Graves, Robert. 1959. The Greek Myths. 2 vol. New York: George Braziller, Inc.

Guerber, H. A. 1895. Myths of Northern Lands. New York/Cincinnati/Chicago: American Book Company

Hallo, William W. and Simpson, William Kelly. 1971. The Ancient Near East - A History. New York etal.: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.

Jacobsen, Thorkild. 1970. Toward the Image of Tammuz and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Jacobsen, Thorkild. 1976. The Treasures of Darkness - A History of Mesopotamian Religion. New Haven and London: Yale University Press

Leach, Maria (editor). 1984. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. San Francisco etal.: Harper & Row, Publishers

Pokorny, Julius. 1959. Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörter buch. Volume I. Bern and Munich: Francke Verlag

Seyffert, Oskar. 1995. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature, and Art. New York etal.: Random House (Gramercy Books)

the latest revision of this document can be found at


Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947



Pokorny I (1959), p. 65: "Specht (Dekl. 1141) setzt wegen gr. árme: - leuké: Hes. eine Farbwurzel ar- an, die er mit al- (oben S. 31) gleichsetzt."